Need Help?

Get in touch with us

bannerAd

Formation of Food Molecule – Types, Importance

Sep 9, 2022
link

Key Concepts

  • Food Molecules
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats/Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Process of photosynthesis
  • Importance of photosynthesis
  • Step involved in photosynthesis

Introduction

Food Molecules  

Food is made up of many biological molecules that provide us with energy and include chemicals that we require to develop and repair ourselves and assist our cells to work in our bodies. Carbohydrates and lipids are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up proteins. 

Food

There are a limited number of common atoms in food. Carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are the most common: 

  • Carbon (C): Carbon is the basic building unit of the vast majority of compounds found in food. It is necessary for lipids, carbs, and proteins. Most molecules in food cannot be created without carbon. 
  • Oxygen (O): Oxygen excels at participating in a wide range of chemical processes. Oxygen has a large number of electrons, which are frequently employed to connect two molecules or divide molecules into fragments. 
  • Nitrogen (N): This atom is required for the formation of proteins. Proteins cannot be synthesized in the absence of nitrogen. The nitrogen group is another popular site for reactions to occur. 

Types of Food Molecules

A molecule is a bonded collection of atoms representing the smallest unit of a chemical compound that may participate in a chemical process. Today’s kitchen chemistry includes different types of food molecules, such as minerals, vitamins, fiber, and water.  

Types of food molecules

Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are the three most frequent types of molecules found in food. These molecules are also known as ‘macronutrients,’ and they are nutritionally important to us. The three groupings of molecules have quite different properties that will affect how your meal turns out. They are important in browning processes and flavor production and taste.  

Different types of food molecules

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates provide you with energy. Simple and complicated are the two categories. Sugars such as glucose and lactose are examples of simple carbohydrates. They provide a quick energy source, similar to biscuits or energy bars. Complex carbs, such as rice and pasta, gradually release energy.  

parallel
Carbohydrates

Complex carbohydrates include cellulose, starch, and glycogen. They are a lengthy chain of sugars that have been linked together. 

  • Cellulose – Cellulose is present in plant cell walls and is indigestible to humans. However, as a fiber, it assists the intestinal wall muscles in pushing food through the digestive tract. 
  • Starch - Stomach enzymes break down starch into glucose, which cells may utilize to generate energy. 
  • Glycogen - Glycogen can be turned into glucose when glucose levels are low.  

Fats/Lipids 

Fats are an energy reservoir, delivering twice as much energy as carbs and proteins. They include fatty acids and glycerol. Cheese, butter, and oils are examples of high-fat foods.  

Fat/Lipids

Proteins  

Protein is required for cell development and repair and can be utilized as an energy source when carbohydrate and fat stores are depleted. Proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids. Following digestion, amino acids are taken into circulation and transported to cells, where they are reassembled into proteins required by the body (e.g., enzymes). Protein-rich foods include fish and eggs.  

Protein

Formation of food molecules in plants by the process of photosynthesis 

Process of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis happens at the cellular level in chloroplasts, which are cell organelles. These organelles carry a green pigment called chlorophyll, which is responsible for the leaves’ distinctive green color. As previously stated, photosynthesis takes place in leaves, and the specialized cell organelles responsible for this activity are known as chloroplasts. 

parallel
Photosynthesis

A leaf comprises three distinct parts: a petiole, epidermis, and lamina. The lamina absorbs both sunlight and carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide enters the plant through the stomata, while water is taken by the root hairs from the soil and transferred to the leaves via the xylem vessels. Chlorophyll absorbs sunlight’s light energy and splits water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. 

In the creation of glucose, hydrogen from water molecules and carbon dioxide taken from the air are required. Furthermore, oxygen is released into the environment via the leaves as a waste product. Glucose is a fuel source for plants, providing energy for growth and development, with the remainder stored in the roots, leaves, and fruits for later use.  

Steps Involved in Photosynthesis

The following are the various steps in the photosynthesis process:  

  • Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll in leaves via the Sun.  
  • Light energy is converted into chemical energy. During this process, the water molecule divides into its constituents, hydrogen and oxygen.  
  • Light energy is used to convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, such as glucose, by using the hydrogen and oxygen created in the preceding phase.  
Process of photosynthesis

Importance of Photosynthesis

All life on Earth depends on photosynthesis to survive. 

It plays an important part in the food chain since plants use this mechanism to make food, creating the primary producers.  

Photosynthesis is also responsible for the production of oxygen, which is essential for most creatures to survive.  

The whole life form is directly or indirectly dependent on the photosynthesis process carried out by plants.  

Plants are unable to generate food if photosynthesis does not occur. As a result, they maintain environmental equilibrium.  

Plants will cease to generate oxygen, and no animal life will be able to exist as a result of the lack of oxygen. We will run out of air and food, and all life on Earth will become extinct. 

Summary

  • Food is made up of many biological molecules that provide us with energy and include
    chemicals that we require to develop and repair ourselves.
  • Carbohydrates and lipids are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
  • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up proteins.
  • A molecule is a bonded collection of atoms that represents the smallest unit of a chemical
    compound that may participate in a chemical process.
  • Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are the three most frequent types of molecules found
    in food.
  • These molecules are also known as ‘macronutrients,’ and they are nutritionally important
    to us.
  • They are important in browning processes, as well as flavor production and taste.
    Photosynthesis is the process through which plants generate food.
  • The existence of sunlight, chlorophyll, water, and carbon dioxide gas is required for
    photosynthesis.
  • Chlorophyll is a chemical found in all green plants, particularly the leaves.
    Plants absorb water from the soil as well as carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
  • The chloroplast found in cells is essential in this process.
  • Plants, known as producers, can only undertake photosynthesis through their leaves and
    not through other sections of the plant.
  • They are the ecosystem’s first rung trophic level.

Comments:

Related topics

Character Displacement : Abstract and History

Introduction:  CHARACTER DISPLACEMENT   Abstract  Introduction  Character displacement favors the evolution of novel resource use or reproductive traits, drives divergence between sympatric and allopatric conspecific populations, and both initiate and finalize the process of speciation. Despite the significance of character displacement, research has been largely focused on whether it occurs or not. However, it is needed […]

Read More >>

Process of Natural Selection and Evolution

Key Concepts • Natural selection • Variation • Adaptation • Process of natural selection Introduction Natural selection is one of the important mechanisms of evolutionary change and is the process responsible for the evolution of adaptive features in various species. It is a force that causes groups of organisms to change over time and it […]

Read More >>

Release of Energy – Detailed Explanation

Introduction Release of Energy   Food web organisms transmit energy from producers to consumers. Organisms require energy to complete complicated activities. The great majority of energy in food webs comes from the Sun and is turned (processed) into chemical energy via the photosynthesis process in plants. When molecules are broken down during respiration in plants, a […]

Read More >>

Other topics