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Introduction of Evolution : Types and History

Aug 30, 2022
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Introduction: 

Evolution 

Evolution is the process through which the traits of a species change over several generations and is based on natural selection. The theory of evolution holds that all species are related and evolve over time. 

Does genetic variety have a role in evolution?  

Yes, in a population that influences an organism’s physical features (phenotype). Some of these features may provide the individual with an edge over others, which they can then pass on to their children. 

Evolution of man 

Evolution is described as a change in a population’s genetic composition over successive generations. When we hear the word “evolution,” we usually think of a gradual shift. Evolutionary changes, on the other hand, are not aimed towards perfection or even at a specific objective. Evolutionary changes are caused by interactions between accessible genetic variations and their environment. There are three critical participants in the evolution process: genetic variation, natural selection, and genetics. 

History Of Evolution  

Charles Darwin (1809–1882), an English scientist, is widely recognized as the originator of modern evolutionary theory. However, evolutionary ideas may be traced far back to the eighteenth century. For example, in the mid-eighteenth century, the French mathematician Pierre-Louis Maupertuis (1698–1759; and the French encyclopedias Denis Diderot (1713–1784; proposed evolutionary theories that contained ideas that later reappeared in Darwin’s own theory.

parallel
 Evolution of man

The French scientist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829) was the first to properly express the hypothesis that species might evolve into new species over time. He maintained in his book Philosophie Zoologique that living things necessarily develop toward greater perfection and complexity. The natural environment, he claimed, was the driving reason behind the shift. Changes in the environment, according to Lamarck’s idea, affected the demands of living species. These organisms, in turn, reacted by employing various organs or body parts to varying degrees. The size and shape of the bodily parts changed as they were utilized or remained unused. 

Darwin and his contemporaries, Alfred Russell Wallace (1823–1913), are credited with separately developing the first logical framework for an explanation of evolutionary change. Natural selection was the name given by Darwin and Wallace to this hypothesis. Unlike Darwin Wallace did not completely develop his theories. As a result, Darwin is often regarded as the creator of the current theory of evolution.  

In his 1859 book The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection and related writings, he presented the core concepts of theory of evolution. One significant distinction between the two men was that Wallace’s believed that natural selection could not have generated the human brain. He believed that human intelligence could have only been generated by a higher force.  

Types Of Evolution  

Evolution may occur in a variety of ways over time. Environmental and predation factors, for example, can have varying effects on the manner in which species exposed to them develop, demonstrating the three basic forms of evolution: divergent, convergent, and parallel evolution. 

 Types of evolution 

Types Of Evolution: Divergent Evolution  

When most people hear the word “evolution,” they think of divergent evolution, the evolutionary process in which two species eventually diverge. When closely related species diversify to new environments, this form of evolution is common. Divergent evolution, on a broad scale, is responsible for the existing diversity of life on earth, beginning with the earliest living cells. On a smaller scale, it is responsible for human and ape evolution from a shared primate ancestor.

parallel
Divergent evolution 

Types Of Evolution: Convergent Evolution  

Convergent evolution complicates disciplines of research like comparative anatomy. Convergent evolution occurs when species with distinct ancestors develop to share comparable features as a result of a common habitat or other selective pressure. Whales and fish, for example, have some traits since both had to evolve techniques of moving through the same medium: water. 

Convergent evolution

Types Of Evolution: Parallel Evolution  

Parallel evolution happens when two species evolve separately while preserving a high level of resemblance. Parallel evolution happens most commonly between unrelated species that do not occupy the same or similar niches in the same environment. Parallel evolution can also be seen in other species, such as two closely related varieties of beetles that developed from a shared ancestor into differing sizes, or finches evolving differently because they inhabit different islands.

Parallel evolution 

Process Of Evolution  

The fundamental theory of evolution is deceptively simple. It consists of three major components: 

  1. It is conceivable for an organism’s DNA to alter or mutate on occasion. A mutation alters an organism’s DNA in such a way that it impacts its descendants, either instantly or several generations later. 
  1. A mutation can cause a change that is either helpful, detrimental, or neutral. If the mutation is deleterious, the children are unlikely to live to reproduce, therefore the mutation dies out and goes nowhere. If the modification is favorable, the children are likely to outperform other offspring and hence reproduce more. The favorable mutation spreads through reproduction. Natural selection refers to the process of eliminating harmful mutations and propagating beneficial variants.  
  1. New species emerge as a result of mutations that develop and spread over lengthy periods of time. Over many millions of years, the processes of mutation and natural selection have produced every type of life we see today, from bacteria to humans and everything in between. 
Process of evolution  

Importance Of Evolution 

The process through which living things evolve over time is known as evolution. When a creature reproduces, there is a tiny risk that the offspring’s genetic code will be slightly changed. Very seldom does a modest alteration boost a creature’s chances of having offspring, and as a result, that modification becomes to dominate throughout a population group. These modifications take place over time. 

  • Evolution reveals information about our biological past and functions. 
  • It aids in our understanding of genetics and its mutations, even providing a method for forecasting the likelihood of certain medical disorders based on your heritage. 
  • It contributes to medical developments, including as ways for combating viruses, tumors, and other mutating sources of disease. 
  • It has enabled us to better ourselves and live longer lives. 

Summary

  • Evolution is the process through which the traits of a species change over numerous generations and is based on natural selection.
  • The theory of evolution holds that all species are related and evolve over time.
  • In a population genetic variation influences an organism’s physical features (phenotype).
  • Some of these features may provide the individual with an edge over others, which they can then pass on to their children.
  • Charles Darwin (1809-1882), an English scientist, is widely recognized as the originator of modern evolutionary theory.
  • The process through which living things evolve over time is known as evolution.
  • When a creature reproduces, there is a tiny risk that the offspring’s genetic code will be slightly changed.
  • Very seldom does a modest alteration boost a creature’s chances of having offspring, and as a result, that modification begins to dominates throughout a population group.
  • These modifications take place over time.
  • Evolution may occur in a variety of ways over time.
  • Environmental and predation factors can have varying effects on the manner in which species exposed to them develop, demonstrating the three basic forms of evolution.

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