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Structure and Function of Plant and Animal Tissues

Aug 20, 2022
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Key Concepts

  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Meristematic tissue
  • Permanent tissue
  • Epithelial tissues
  • Connective tissues
  • Muscular tissues 

Introduction: 

Cells are the basic, structural, and functional units of all living organisms. They are the smallest units that carry out all life processes to keep the organisms alive. Unicellular organisms are made up of a single cell that performs all basic functions. For example, in an amoeba, a single cell carries out movement, intake of food and respiratory gases, respiration, and excretion. 

Cell
Cell Amoeba

Multicellular organisms are made up of many numbers of cells. Most of these cells are specialized to carry out a few functions in a group. In multicellular organisms, the cells with the same structure, function, and sometimes same origin are grouped together and are called tissues. Both plants and animals have tissues. 

Multicellular

Are tissues in plants and animals the same? 

Tissues in animals
Tissues in plants

In animals, muscle cells are grouped together to form muscle tissues that allow movement. Other kinds of tissues in an animal’s body include blood, nerves, bone, and skin. In plants, the tissue carries water and minerals from a plant’s roots through the stems to the leaves. Another kind of plant tissue is the flesh of fruits. The function of this tissue is to protect the plant’s seeds. In plants and animals, tissues of various kinds come together to make up an organ. 

Plant Tissues  

Meristematic Tissues  

Meristematic tissues are the group of young cells composed of dividing cells and help increase the length and width of the plant. They are of three types depending on location:  

parallel
  1. Apical  
  1. Intercalary  
  1. Lateral 
Meristematic Tissues

They are responsible for the growth, help in the movement of water and nutrition within the plants. It is the outermost tissue, and its function is to protect the plant from mechanical injury.   

Permanent Tissues  

This is the group of cells that are non-dividing. They are involved in the complete growth and differentiation of various parts of the plants. These tissues store food, proteins, oils, and fats and are involved in transportation, photosynthesis, and mechanical support. 

Permanent Tissues 

Animal Tissues  

Epithelial Tissues  

Epithelial tissues are composed of cells that cover the external parts of the body and inner lines surfaces such as the skin, the reproductive tract, the airways, and the inner lining of the digestive tract. It protects the body against the invasions of pathogens, toxins, physical trauma, radiation, etc.   

Epithelial Tissues

Connective Tissues 

Connective Tissues 

They are the group of tissues that are made up of cells separated by an extracellular matrix. This tissue provides shape to different organs and maintains their positions. It is involved in the transportation of water, nutrients, minerals, hormones, gases, wastes, and other substances within the body. Blood, cartilage, bone, tendon, adipose, ligament are examples of connective tissues. 

Muscular Tissue  

These tissues produce force and generate motion, either for the locomotion or the internal organ movement. These tissues help in maintaining an erect position and constriction of organs and blood vessels and are involved in voluntary and involuntary movements. 

parallel
Muscular Tissue 
Muscular Tissue  2

Summary

  • Cells are the basic, structural, and functional units of all living organisms. They are the smallest units that carry out all life processes to keep the organisms alive.
  • Unicellular organisms are made up of a single cell that performs all basic functions.
  • Multicellular organisms are made up of many numbers of cells. Most of these cells are specialized to carry out a few functions in a group.
  • In multicellular organisms, the cells with the same structure, function, and sometimes same origin are grouped together and are called tissues.
  • In plants and animals, tissues of various kinds come together to make up an organ.
  • Plant tissues are of 2 types: Meristematic and permanent.
  • Animal tissues are of 4 types: Epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous.

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