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Pure Substances: Matter and Elements

Aug 20, 2022
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Key Concepts: 

  • Matter 
  • Pure substances 
  • Elements

Introduction and Explanation 

The matter has been classified into three states. They are solids, liquids, and gases.  

As there are different states of matter, their characteristics are also different from each other.  

In solids, atoms are tightly packed so that particles cannot move freely. 

In liquids, atoms are loosely packed when compared to solids. 

In gases, atoms are more loosely packed than solids and liquids. 

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Now we are going to learn ‘what is meant by atoms?” 

Pure substances 

  • Many particles combine together to form a new object.  
  • An object made of small parts can be taken apart, and the parts can be rearranged to make a new object. 
  • We call those small parts or particles ATOMS. 
  • Matter is made up of very small parts called atoms. 
  • Atoms combine to form elements. 
  • Elements combine to form molecules and compounds. 
  • Elements and compounds come under pure substances. 

As in English, we have alphabets of 26 letters. 

 alphabets
  • In the same way, chemistry has 118 elements. 
118 elements of chemistry
  • All these elements combine to form chemicals and substances. 
  • The elements cannot be broken into simpler substances. 
  • The first 10 elements in chemistry are: 
  1. Hydrogen: 
  • It is the first element. 
  • It is in a gaseous state. 
  • It is written as H2
  1. Helium: 
  • It is the second element. 
  • It is in a gaseous state. 
  • It is written as ‘He.’ 
  1. Lithium: 
  • It is the third element. 
  • It is in a solid state. 
  • It is written as ‘Li.’ 
  1. Beryllium: 
  • It is the fourth element. 
  • It is in a solid state. 
  • It is written as ‘Be.’ 
  1. Boron: 
  • It is the fifth element. 
  • It is in a solid state. 
  • It is written as ‘B.’ 
  1. Carbon: 
  • It is the sixth element. 
  • It is in a solid state. 
  • It is written as ‘C.’ 
  1. Nitrogen: 
  • It is the seventh element. 
  • It is in a gaseous state. 
  • It is written as ‘N2.’ 
  1. Oxygen: 
  • It is the eighth element. 
  • It is in a gaseous state. 
  • It is written as ‘O2.’ 
  1. Fluorine: 

 It is the ninth element.

  • It is in a gaseous state. 
  • It is written as ‘F.’ 
  1. Neon: 
  • It is the tenth element. 
  • It is in a gaseous state. 
  • It is written as ‘Ne.’ 

 Summary: 

  • Matter is made up of very small parts called atoms. 
  • Atoms in different numbers and combinations make different molecules.  
  • 118 elements are present in chemistry. They are: 
  1. Hydrogen 
  1. Helium 
  1. Lithium 
  1. Beryllium 
  1. Boron 
  1. Carbon 
  1. Nitrogen 
  1. Oxygen 
  1. Fluorine 
  1. Neon  
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