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Grade 9
Sep 5, 2022

Punctuation marks are used as signals to the readers. 

Types of Punctuations

Period, Full Stop or Point [.] 

The period (.) is placed at the end of declarative sentences or imperative sentences.

  • The Great Barrier Reef is the largest living structure on Earth. 
  • Do not be late. 

After an indirect question or after a question intended as a suggestion and not requiring an answer. 

  • Tell me how he did it. 
  • May we hear from you. 

In place of a closing parenthesis after a letter or number denoting a series. 

Commas [ , ] 

Commas are used to separate words or group of words in a simple series of three or more items. 

  • We bought apples, peaches, and bananas today. (Series of words)  

Use a comma to split a dependent clause from an independent clause. 

Use a comma after an introductory clause or phrase. 

Use commas to enclose clauses not essential to the meaning of a sentence. [NONRESTRICTIVE CLAUSES] 

  • Whenever he writes an essay, he gets confused about where to put commas.  
  • If the weather is pleasant tomorrow, I’m going to the park. 

The Question Mark [ ? ] 

The question mark is used to indicate a direct query, even if not in the form of a question. 

It is used to express more than one query in the same sentence. 


To express doubt. 

  • Did he do it? 
  • He did what? 
  • Can the money be raised? is the question. 

The Exclamation Mark [ ! ] 

The exclamation point is used to mark expression and emotions, which may be expressed even in a declarative or interrogative sentence. 

  • He acknowledged the fatal error! 
  • How breathtakingly beautiful! 

Apostrophes [ ‘ ] 

  • Apostrophes convey possession and also indicate where a letter is omitted to form a contraction. 
  • To portray possession, add an apostrophe and an -s to singular nouns or indefinite pronouns that end in. 
  • Add just a punctuation for plural possessive things finishing off with – s. 
  • The punctuation position relies upon whether there is more than one thing. 

Hyphen [–] 

Dashes are utilized to shape compound words or join word gatherings.  

  • I got dizzy just watching the children on the merry-go-round. 
  • My brother-in-law is a police officer.  

Quotation Marks [“-”]   

Quotation marks enclose the exact words of a person.  

  • He said, “He will be here soon.” 

Please do not use quotation marks around a paraphrase or summary.  

  • She said she received her gift. 

Semicolon [;]  

  • Utilize a semicolon rather than a period when the thoughts in two autonomous provisions are firmly associated and you need per users to hope for something else. 
  • Associate two independent clauses with a semicolon to stay away from a run-on sentence.  
  • Biography speaks about the subject; biographers also speak about themselves non verbally.  
  • To split items in a list containing internal commas  

Colon [:]  

Colons serve two functions when:  

  • Writer is introducing a quotation or a list of items. 
  • Writer is separating two clauses of which the second expands or illustrates the first.  

Parentheses () 

Parentheses are a form of punctuation to be used around words in a sentence to add or clarify information. 

  • There are two Vancouvers (in British Columbia and in Washington) in the area sometimes called “Cascadia.”  
  • Our teacher (a good-looking woman in her 40s) introduced herself.  

Brackets [] 

Brackets, in pairs, are used in transcripts, congressional hearings, the Congressional Record, testimony in court work, etc., 

  • Our conference [lasted] 2 hours. 
  • The general [Washington] ordered him to leave. 
  • Th e-paper was as follows [reads]: 

Dash [—] 

Dashes advise a change of pace.  

They alert the per user to something unforeseen, an interference, or a sudden difference in thought. 

Form a dash by typing two hyphens, putting no extra space before, between, or after them.  

  • Armed with one weapon—her wit—she faced the crowd.  
  • The accused gasped, “But I never—” and fainted.  


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