## AP Phy (C) Equation Sheet

Both AP physics (C) tests include a handy information page with the exam packet on test day. This information sheet is jam-packed with physics formulae and equations, making it highly valuable as you study for and take the AP physics (C) examinations.

The three-page equations sheet presented on the AP physics (C) tests has a lot of information. It’s crucial to be familiar with the material on the sheet and how to use it to your advantage during the AP examinations.

We’ll also perform the following in this tutorial to assist you in learning the details of the AP physics (C) reference tables:

- Give three indicators on using the equations sheet to study for the AP physics (C) examinations.
- Give three indicators on how to use the equations sheet during the AP tests.
- Part by part, explain how to use the AP physics (C) equation sheet.

Because of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, AP examinations will now be conducted in three sessions between the months of May and June. The dates of your examinations and whether they will be online or offline will be determined by your school.

### The AP Phy (C) Examination

There are two AP physics (C) examinations:

● The one focusing on mechanics

● The other focuses on magnetism and electricity.

Both AP physics (C) tests examine applications of students of scientific processes related to the big notions of change, fields, force interactions, and conservation. The courses of AP physics (C) put students to the exam on the following topics:

Magnetism and Electricity |
Mechanics |

Electric Circuits | Kinematics |

Conductors, Dielectrics, Capacitors, | Gravitation |

Electrostatistics | Energy, Work, and Power |

Magnetic Fields | Systems of Linear Momentum and Particles |

Electromagnetism | Rotation |

Oscillations | |

Newton’s Laws of Motion |

Both AP physics (C) tests are 1 hr and 30 mins. It includes one free answer section and one multiple-choice question. The MCQ portion consists of 35 questions on both tests and lasts 45 mins. The free-answer part consists of three questions on both AP physics (C) tests. It lasts for 45 minutes. The tests’ free answer and multiple-choice parts each account for half of the total score. The great news is that the AP physics (C) magnetism and electricity equation sheet and AP physics (C) mechanics equation sheet are identical. Therefore, you won’t have to study from two distinct papers.

#### The Sheet of Equations

The AP Phy (C) formula sheet is included in the exam booklet for all AP physics (C) exam participants. The equations sheet for each examination is the same. The equations sheet provided during the exam is not a complete table of phy equations. It contains equations mostly used in constants, physics, conversion factors, values of mostly used functions, symbols, and prefixes.

#### How to Use the Equation Sheet Formulas

The AP physics (C) formula sheet has five sections:

- Prefixes
- Equations
- Unit symbols
- Constants and conversion factors
- Values of trigonometric functions for typical angles

The formula sheet’s equations portion is the longest. It is separated into subsections based on a formula. The subsections of the information sheet’s equations include electricity and magnetism, mechanics, geometry and trigonometry, and calculus. Each area of the formula sheet can also be utilized for various purposes on the test.

#### Conversion Factors and Constants

The conversion and constant factors on the AP physics (C) formula sheet will come in handy while performing different calculations on the AP test. These values, often known as “universal constants” or “physical constants,” are notable for having a consistent value in nature regardless of the situation.

The constants included on the formula sheet are as follows:

- Mass of proton
- Vacuum permittivity
- Coulomb’s law constant
- Avogadro’s number
- Universal gas constant
- Mass of neutron
- Mass of electron
- Boltzmann’s constant
- Electron charge magnitude
- Universal gravitational constant
- Acceleration due to gravity at Earth’s surface
- One electron volt
- Speed of light
- One unified atomic mass unit
- Planck’s constant
- Vacuum permeability
- Magnetic constant
- One atmosphere pressure

Some constants have no units, but those that do may need to be transformed to and represented in other units on the test. On the test, conversion factors will come into use. The conversion factors on the sheet can change constants from one part to another by dividing or multiplying them.

#### Equations for Electricity and Magnetism

The formula sheet’s following table contains 29 typical electrical and magnetism equations. During the test, these equations can be utilized to determine, define, describe, and compute the following:

- Capacitance and Capacitors
- Resistance, equivalent resistance, and the definition of power or the rate of heat loss through a resistor
- Electric fields and features of electric fields
- The potential difference, potential due to multiple point charges, and electrostatic potential energy
- The magnitude of electrostatic force
- Currents and current density
- Magnetic fields, magnetic force, and magnetic flux

#### Equations in Mechanics

The AP physics (C) equation sheet contains 31 widely utilized mechanics equations. On the test, these equations can be used to define, describe, calculate, and determine the following:

- Kinematic relationships and angular kinematic relationships
- Potential energy, potential energy for a spring object, and gravitational potential energy
- Power
- Momentum, angular momentum for a rotating object, total speed, and momentum for a single thing moving with some velocity
- Impulse
- Force, the work done on an object by force, frictional force, and gravitational force
- Kinetic energy and kinetic energy in a rotating object,
- Torque
- Moment of inertia
- Simple harmonic motion

#### Trigonometric and Geometric Functions

Finally, the equations sheet’s table of 14 trigonometric and geometric functions may be utilized to compute the following for the AP physics (C) exam:

- Area of a triangle
- Area, circumference, and arc length of a circle
- Area of the rectangle
- Volume and surface area of a sphere
- The volume of a rectangular solid
- Volume and surface area of a cylinder
- Formulas for determining the value of the angles of a right triangle

#### Formulas Related to Laws

The section on electricity and magnetism also includes formulae for the following laws:

- Law of Ohm
- Law of Ampere
- Law of Coulomb
- Law of Gauss
- Law of Biot-Savart
- Law of Faraday

**Common Angle Unit Symbols, Prefixes, and Trigonometric Functions**

The table of unit symbols and prefixes will work together to help you prepare for the AP physics (C) exam. When answering test questions, a prefix is coupled with the term for a certain unit to describe a number or measurement, such as giga (prefix) and watts (unit) or kilo (prefix) and grams (unit). If you are unable to recall the value of a certain prefix, the formula page might assist you with the table given.

The table of prefixes also includes the symbol for each prefix, which may be coupled with the right unit sign for answering test questions. For example, it is permissible to state a value in gigahertz (GHz) or milliseconds (ms). Finally, the table of prefixes includes the factor, or scientific notation, for each prefix. These are represented by the number 10 plus an exponent, 1012 or 109. You may anticipate using scientific notation to represent the smallest and largest measurements on the AP physics (C) test.

The trigonometric functions for common angles are provided in the final section on the first page of the equations sheet. These will be useful for the problems of AP trigonometry, geometry, and calculus. The table provides the values of cos, sin, and tan at various degrees, which you may use as a fast reference when doing problems on the AP physics (C) exam.

**Equations**

The majority of the formula sheet you’ll be given during the AP physics (C) examinations contains standard physics equations. These equations are classified as mechanics, electricity and magnetism, geometry and trigonometry. In addition, each section of equations contains a symbols key to help you remember what each symbol in a particular equation represents.

The AP physics (C) equations sheet includes many physics practices and concepts. Hence, it’s critical to become familiar with what’s on the sheet and determine how you effectively use it as a resource when studying for and taking the test.