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Integrated Circuit – Features, Types of Designs.

Sep 6, 2022

Before the invention of integrated circuits, the standard approach for creating courses involved choosing the components—such as diodes, transistors, resistors, inductors, and capacitors—and shouldering connecting them. However, due to issues with size and power consumption, it was necessary to construct a small size circuit with lower power consumption, reliability, and shockproof.

R, C, L, diodes, transistors, and transistors are a few of the components that go into an integrated circuit. They are constructed on an integrated circuit, which is a small single semiconductor chip (IC). They all work together to accomplish a given task. The IC is usually housed in a plastic box with metal pins so that it may be affixed to a circuit board while being easily breakable.


The roles of oscillators, amplifiers, microprocessors, and even computer memory may all be performed by integrated circuits.

First Integrated Circuit

The concept for the first integrated circuit was nearly simultaneously generated by two persons, like with many other breakthroughs. Transistors were already widely used in devices like computers, radios, and phones, and now manufacturers sought something even better. Although transistors are less than vacuum tubes, they are tiny enough for some of the newest electronics.


However, since each transistor had to be attached to wires and other electronics after it was created, there was a limit to how small they could be built. The transistors were already beyond the capabilities of steady hands and little tweezers. Therefore, engineers intended to create an entire circuit—including all of the necessary transistors, wires, and other components—in a single step. The elements could all be far smaller if they could build a microcircuit in just one step. Jack Kilby was working alone at Texas Instruments one day in late July. Since he had just recently started working there, he could not take vacation days when almost everyone else did. The corridors were vacant, and he had plenty of time to think. He realised right away that all circuit components, not only the transistor, could be made of silicon.

At the time, semiconductors weren’t used to create capacitors or resistors. If possible, the circuit as a whole might be constructed from a single crystal, making it smaller and much simpler to fabricate.


Kilby’s employer approved the plan and gave the order to start working. Texas Instruments submitted a patent application on February 6 after Kilby completed a functioning model by September 12. In March, they debuted their first “Solid Circuit,” about the size of a pencil tip.

However, a separate person in California had the exact same ideas. Robert Noyce, a new Fairchild Semiconductor employee, at the start of 1959.


He also knew who was capable of creating a whole circuit on a single chip. Kilby had figured out how to make each part precisely, but Noyce came up with a much more efficient way to connect them. That April, Fairchild began developing what they referred to as “unitary circuits” and submitted a patent application. Even though Fairchild was aware that TI had already applied for a patent on a related invention, it nonetheless prepared a thorough application in the hopes that it wouldn’t infringe on that technology. The effort put into the details paid off. On April 25, 1961, the patent office granted Robert Noyce the first patent for an IC while Kilby’s application was still being reviewed. Today, it is acknowledged that the two men had different perspectives on the idea of the first integrated circuit.

Designing Integrated Circuits

Specific logic techniques and circuit designs are used to design Integrated Circuits


 Following are the three types of designing Integrated Circuits:

  • Digital Design
  • Electronic Design
  • Blended Design

Digital Design

Utilising the digital design technique, integrated circuits (ICs) are created that are used as microprocessors and computer memory (RAM and ROM). With this design approach, the circuit density and overall efficiency are maximised. This technique produces integrated circuits (ICs) that accept binary input data, such as 0 and 1. The process for producing digital integrated circuits is depicted in the diagram below.

Electronic Design

The analogue design technique is utilised in IC chips. ICs are used to construct oscillators, filters, and regulators. The best power increase, dissipation, and resistance are required.


Blended Design

The ideas of digital and analogue design are combined in varied designs. Signals are converted from analogue to digital or digital to analogue using mixed ICs.

Building Integrated Circuits

Copper, semiconductors, and other elements are stacked intricately on an IC chip to create resistors, transistors, and other components. These wafers are cut into pieces and then formed into a die.


The ICs are made from delicate semiconductor wafers with complicated connections between the layers. Thus they are packed instead. The little, frail die is transformed into the recognisable black chip by the IC chip packaging.

The ICs are made from delicate semiconductor wafers with complex connections between the layers.

All IC chips are polarised, and each pin has a specific place and function. integrated chips identify the first pin using a notch or a dot.

The following PINs rise consecutively around the chip in a counterclockwise orientation once the first pin is recognised.

Features of Integrated Circuits

Building and packaging

The materials used to make ICs are silicon and other semiconducting semiconductors. Due to IC’s small size and high sensitivity, a network of minuscule gold and aluminium wires are joined and moulded into a flat block of plastic or ceramic. Metal pins outside the block are used to connect cables inside. The solid block keeps the chip chilled and shields it from overheating.

Incorporating IC

because they combined many devices into one, integrated chips earned their name. The microprocessor, memory, and interface are all included in a single integrated microcontroller circuit.

Photonic Integrated Circuit

An integrated circuit, like the ones in your computer, smartphone, and other electronic devices, is made up of electrical components that form functional circuits. Photonic components, on the other hand, are components that operate with light. Together, they form a photonic integrated circuit.

In contrast to how photons go via optical components like polarisers, phase shifters, and waveguides, which are comparable to resistors or electrical wires, electron flux in an electronic chip moves through resistors, inductors, transistors, and capacitors.

Integrating op amp

An electronic integration circuit is the operational amplifier integrator. The operational amplifier (op-amp), on which it is based, carries out the mathematical process of time integration, resulting in an output voltage proportionate to the input voltage integrated over time.

Integrating op amp circuit

The Integrating Op Amp is an operational amplifier circuit that performs the mathematical action of Integrating, as its name indicates. Op-amp integrator output voltage is proportional to the input voltage to the integral of the input voltage, as a consequence, allowing us to have the output respond to changes in the input voltage over time.

The electrical source either charges or discharges the current flowing through the feedback loop, which also serves as the essential negative feedback channel. The duration of the voltage at the input determines the amplitude of the output signal.

Frequently Asked Questions 

1. What issue is resolved by a photonic integrated circuit?

Similar to turning a switch to inject energy that powers electrical components, a photonic integrated circuit uses a laser source to inject light that controls the components. Moore technology often referred to as integrated photonic technology, uses light instead of electricity to get around some of the drawbacks of electronics, such as heat production and integration. By enabling quicker and more extensive data transfer rates, this technology takes gadgets to the next level. The advantages of photonic integrated circuits include shrinking, more incredible speed, decreased heat effects, massive capacity for integration, and compatibility with existing processing techniques that enable high yield, mass manufacturing, and lower prices. Among the various integrated photonics applications are data transmission, sensing, the car industry, and astronomy.

2. What kinds of uses are suitable for photonic integrated circuits?

PICs have several services, including data transfer. Other common benefits include biological applications like lab-on-a-chip devices, applications in the defence and aerospace industries, and applications in the field of astronomy. A feasibility study can determine whether integrated photonics has the potential to be a solution as designers approach new technological problems. As a result, PICs are always getting better and finding new uses. Design studios, PIC consortia, and even several institutions worldwide provide their skills for this research.

3. What use does it serve in creating photonic integrated circuits right now?

PICs have the potential to supplant electronic integrated circuits as the dominant technology for data communications solutions for autonomous vehicles, sensors for aerospace and aerospace, and countless other uses in a new technological era.

Integrated Circuit


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