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Lepton – Its Types and Properties

Aug 11, 2022


Lepton represents any group of fundamental particles that react just to the Lorentz force, gravitational force, and weak force, and leptons are unimpressed by the strong nuclear force. They are considered atomic particles; such, they are unpredictable in that they seem to be constituted of tiny parts of matter. They can take either a single part of the electrostatic charge or become neutral. Taus, muons, and electrons are the charged leptons. All of these kinds have different masses and negative charges. 

The slightest Leptons are Electrons with the mass as 1/1,840th part of a proton. The heaviest of them are Muons which have a mass greater than 200 times the mass of electrons. Taus contains nearly 3,700 times greater mass than that electrons. Every charged lepton contains a related neutral associate, or neutrino (tau-neutrino, electron-, and muon-), which doesn’t have an electrostatic charge and minimum mass. Additionally, every lepton, as well as the neutrinos, have alpha particles known as antileptons. Its’ mass and the mass of antileptons are identical, but the remaining qualities are opposite.


Spin or built-in angular momentum is the lepton characteristic property, aside from their charge and mass features. They are categorized within a wide set of ultra-elementary particles, the baryons, specified by half-integer numbers spin. The complete number of them seems identical in each bit’s reaction. 

The total number of it is L (the difference between the total number of antileptons and leptons) is stable. Additionally, the lepton conservation law of every kind seems to be maintained; for instance, the number of electron-neutrinos and electrons are preserved individually from the total quantity of muon-neutrinos and muons. The maximum violation of the lepton conservation law is a component per million.


Leptons definition

We know that an atom is composed of electrons and nucleons. The atom is circumscribed by the Lorentz force, which is also called that the electron mass is tinier than the nucleon’s mass( it contains protons and neutrons). The electrons have a negative charge, and protons seem like right-angled quarks that are vertical in the nuclei.

By quantum mechanics, we define it as subatomic particles with half-integer value spin(½). It won’t collapse with any strong force. They are classified into two divisions that are:


Electron-like leptons are called the Electrically charged lepton.

Neutrinos- Neutrally charged lepton.


The electrically charged one can merge with various particles to create more amassed particles like positronium and atoms (these have the same mass as an electron but contain the positive charge), whereas the neutrino hardly combines with various particles, and also they are hardly considered. The well-known lepton is electrons( this contains minimum mass compared to every charged lepton).

The two classes which are commentated on above are categorized into six kinds and divided into three groups they are:


Electronic ones are in the first generation, consisting of electron neutrino and the electron. 

Muonic leptons come under the second generation, consisting of muon neutrino and the muon.


And the last one is Teutonic leptons which consist of tau neutrino and tau neutrino. -1e, 0e, and +1e are the electric charges on the charged leptons.

What are leptons? 

Lepton is defined as a half-integer value of a spin particle that doesn’t experience strong forces. Hardons are particles that do not experience strong forces. In the present pattern, we have six of them: the tau particles, electrons, muons, and the related neutrinos. Electron is a well-known lepton. The other leptons are muon( ) and tau( ), the other leptons where mass is not the same as an electron but has charges like electrons. And the remaining leptons are neutrinos ( ) and their types.


Types of leptons

In the present formation, we have six kinds. They are muon, electron, and tau atoms and the neutrinos related to them. They are considered subatomic particles and don’t seem like little parts of matter. They act as emission-line particles. Every lepton is a fermion, i.e., It contains a spin- 1⁄2 value, which is relevant to the principle of Pauli exclusion. To build the elements in a periodic table, this fact is a significant indication. 

  • Charged leptons: These can merge with various particles to make different complex particles like positronium and atoms.
  • Electron: The particles are charged negatively with the approximation of 1/1836th mass to that of a proton. The electrons are placed in an atomic orbital, the region enclosing the atomic nucleus. The electron constitutes an atom that is a member of a group of subatomic particles.
  • Muon: It is a subatomic particle identical to the electron, containing the -1 electric charge and ½ spin. Muons contain a mass that is 200 times more than electrons, which are considered heavier. The lifespan of a muon is 2.2 µs, and it is an unstable particle.
  • Tau: It is also known as tauon, tau particle, and tau lepton. This subatomic particle is identical to the electron, with a -1 electric charge and ½ spin. Taus is nearly more than 3,700 times heavier than electrons. The lifespan of Tauon is 2.9×10−13 s.
  • Neutrinos: These are neutral-charged electric particles that hardly combine with something and are subsequently hardly notified. It is a subatomic particle containing an invisible mass of less than 0.3 eV. and doesn’t have an electric charge. Neutrinos are substantially combining subatomic particles with a spin of ½.
  • Electron neutrino: It is a subatomic particle that contains the symbol νe. It doesn’t have ½ spin and a total electric charge. It constitutes the lepton first generation with the help of electrons. 
  • Muon neutrino: The symbol for muon neutrino is νμ. And it is a subatomic particle. It doesn’t have ½ spin and a total electric charge. Muon neutrinos constitute the leptons in the second generation with the help of muons. Hence it is named muon neutrino.
  • Tau neutrino: It is a lepton subatomic particle that is defined with the symbol ντ. Tau neutrino doesn’t have ½ spin and the total electric charge. It constitutes the leptons in the third generation with the help of tauon. Hence it is named neutrino.

Properties of Leptons

According to the spin-statistics theorem, the leptons are the subatomic particles; hence, the law of Pauli’s exclusion is involved. Therefore the leptons don’t have identical groups and don’t contain an identical state simultaneously.

The intently related property of Leptons is chirality. This will be able to relate to the very simple visual attribute called helicity ( helicity is the spin direction of a thing applied to the relative force). The particles with identical spin momentum are called dextrorotatory, or else it is known as ham-fisted. The Standard Model’s weak interaction and the left-handed and right-handed fermions are treated disparately. The Standard Model’s Weak interaction is an instance that the equal violation is externally recorded in the records.

It is defined that the fermions of right-handed and left-handed antineutrino will not contain a connection with any of the particles.

Right-handed atomic particles are energized and do not connect or attract in the weak connection especially. Still, right-handed particles connect electrically and hence interact in the weak electric strength with various forces.

The other significant lepton’s property is electric charge, which defines their paramagnetism connection’s power. It signifies its force field and how it will respond to various electric and magnetic fields. Leptons maintain spatial rotation using their spin and the charged atomic particles producing a magnetic field.

Hence every generation consists of a Lepton that is charged electrically and a lepton that is charged non-electrically. The truth conveys the electromagnetic intrusion of the charged leptons that the particles connect with the electromagnetic quantum field of the photons. 

Lepton resistance

Lepton is a set of primary (subatomic) particles. It means that leptons are not constituted of various particles (no quarks)

Leptons connect with the various particles through the weak, Lorentz, and gravitational forces.

Leptons will not attract to the strong nuclear forces

The most general leptons are:

  • The electron, e–
  • The electron neutrino, ve
  • The muon, μ–
  • The muon neutrino, vμ


We say that the lepton is determined as a group of particles (like neutrinos, electrons, and muons) that contain the ½ as a spin quantum number, and it does not undergo stronger forces. Presently it contains six leptons. Out of those, three have charged electrically, and three don’t charge. They will be seen as low-mass particles which do not contain internal patterns. The well-known lepton is the electron.

Frequently asked questions (FAQ)

1. Which of the forces do Leptons connect with?

Lepton is a part of any group of fundamental particles reacting to the Lorentz force, gravitational force, and weak forces. Leptons are not reacted to stronger forces.

2. Which lepton is the heaviest?

The heaviest of all the leptons is tauon. Tauon is also called Tau, Tau particle, and Tau Lepton). The Tau particle contains a 1777 MeV/c^2 mass to place the lepton into position. It is more than a thousand times larger than the smallest lepton. The electron is larger compared to a proton.

3. Will leptons be able to destroy?

We know that lepton and baryon numbers are completely preserved, which means that leptons and baryons can just be formed or destroyed in pairs of particle-antiparticles. An antiparticle is expressed with a particle with a bar on the top.



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