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Barium Hydroxide- Ba (OH)2)

Sep 6, 2022

What is Barium Hydroxide? 

Barium is a chemical element that stands at the periodic table’s atomic number 56. In addition, it stands out as the fifth element under Group 2 as a soft and silver alkaline metal. But what if we told you there was more to this element than what meets the eye? 

In this comprehensive overview of the element and how it affects the overall aspect of chemistry. Let’s get started! 


Barium Hydroxide: An Overview

Barium hydroxide, otherwise called baryta or baryta-water, is not just an important chemical compound but also our topic of discussion in this article. The way to represent this compound in chemistry is Ba(OH)2. Hence, it is Barium Hydroxide’s chemical formula. It is a clear, white powder with no significant odor when available commercially. The formula of it includes chemical molecules that provide it with an ironic character. Besides having the property of catalyzing the reactions of metalizing carboxamide, it can also be dangerous.

Barium Hydroxide Preparation 

As we already mentioned, the formula of it is Ba(OH)2. To better understand the structure, you must first know how it’s prepared. This results from the chemical reaction between Barium oxide (Bao) and water. Bao dissolves in water to form this. First, it appears in a crystalline form called Barium Hydroxide Octahydrate. The open-air converts it to the monohydrate or the desired form of this. But how do we prove that this reaction has some logic in it or it is barium oxide that in reaction with water, produces barium hydroxide? 


For the evidence, researchers have proven that if barium hydroxide passes in a vacuum of 100°C, it yields Bao and water. As we can see, Barium Hydroxide’s chemical formula contains Ba and OH. 

How Did Barium Hydroxide Get The Chemical Formula

Now the question comes, why is the formula represented as Ba(OH)2 then, and why not NaOH?  


Well, for that, you need to understand the concept of valency. Every molecule has an atomic number in the universal periodic table. For barium, it is 56. Now, according to the well-known theory, the configuration of barium is 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p66s2, which hints that it has two unpaired electrons in its outermost shell. 

In the case of OH, a negative ion, otherwise called an anion, has one unpaired electron in its outer orbit. It must complement the valency to blend these two to form one compound. Well, that is only possible when one Barium ion with a+2 valency bonds with 2 OH ions with +1 valency each. 


To give you a better idea, here’s an overview table that defines the basic properties of –


Odor Odorless
Density3.74 g/cm³
Molar Mass171.34 g/mol
Covalently-Bonded Unit3
SolubilitySlightly Soluble (Cold Water)
Vapor Pressure0.48 kPa at 17.6 deg C

Barium Hydroxide Octahydrate

The first product that gets yielded in the process of making Barium hydroxide’s chemical formula is the octahydrate form of it. Barium hydroxide octahydrate is chemically represented by the formula, BaH18O10 or Ba(OH)2.8H2O. This inorganic base is widely used in chemical analysis and titration procedures. Barium Hydroxide Octahydrate has Ba2+ centers with eight coordinate centers. However, it differs from the monohydrate form because it does not share ligands.

Properties Of Barium Hydroxide

In this section, we outline its basic physical and chemical properties of it,


Molar Mass Of Barium Hydroxide

It has a molecular weight or molar mass of 137.33, with only Barium in the compound. To break it down further, hydrogen comes with a molar mass of 1.008, and the formula comprises two different hydrogen atoms with a combined weight of 2.016. Adding to it, oxygen’s molar mass is 15.999.

Considering Ba(OH)2’s formula with two oxygen atoms, two hydrogen atoms, and one Barium atom, the total molar mass of Barium Hydroxide stands at 171.344g/mol.


Is Barium Hydroxide A Strong Base?

According to chemistry, a compound is called a base when it neutralizes acids when reacting with hydrogen ions. Barium hydroxide. Now, is barium hydroxide a strong base or a strong acid

Barium is a metal that comes under Group IIA of the periodic table. That implies it readily dissolves in water and yields a strong base solution which is the topic of our concern. So, what do you think now? Is Barium hydroxide a strong acid? Indeed, it is! Not just strong, but as strong as IA metal hydroxides.

Barium hydroxide can be completely lysed, yielding barium ions and hydroxyl ions.

Boiling Point For Barium Hydroxide 

The boiling point for barium oxide is 780 degrees Celsius. Boiling the substance until it reaches 800 degrees Celsius will cause it to disintegrate and release barium oxide.

Melting Point

Melting point refers to the exact temperature at which the compound starts melting. The amount of water in the compound plays a significant role in determining its melting point. The more the water content, the less the melting point. In the case of Barium Hydroxide, octahydrate is the form that comprises a maximum amount of water, hence melting at 78 degrees Celsius. Whereas the anhydrous form has the least amount of water in it melts at 407 degrees Celsius. The monohydrate form melts between these two temperatures, which are 300 degrees Celsius.

Solubility Of The Metal

Talking about barium hydroxide solubility in water, it is safe to say that it is not that soluble. Due to decreasing lattice energy, the least molar concentration needed to dissolve barium hydroxide in water is 0.1M. Not only water, but it is less soluble even in other solvents. 

Practical Uses Of Barium Hydroxide

Barium hydroxide, both in its monohydrate and octahydrate form, has many uses worldwide. Here’s an overview of the different practical uses for the metal:

Preparing Organic Compounds & Barium Salts 

Ions present in the aqueous state of barium and Sulphate salts are combined to create barium sulphate in the lab. Here, the waste consisting of barium salt is occasionally blended with sodium sulphate to detoxify and immobilize the chemical element. This way, the process negates the most hazardous barium-based salt due to its insolubility. 

As An Additive in Petroleum Industries

Barium hydroxide possesses many properties. It has all the features to be a perfect alkali that can be used in the petroleum industry. The work it does in the oil industry is that it is used as an additive to the oil. 

Used As An Analytical Chemistry For Weak Acid Titration

This treatment favors inorganic acids. Here, the clear aqueous solution is guaranteed to be free from carbonates, unlike potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide, such as barium carbon, which is insoluble in water. This way, the solution can be used as an indicator of thymolphthalein or phenolphthalein (with alkaline discoloration) without risking the process of titration due to carbon ions’ presence. 

Some other uses of this compound are as follows:

  • Alongside working as an oil additive, it also refines oil products. That’s what makes it a significant component in refined plants and industries.
  • Many medical equipment and treatments are incomplete without barium hydroxide. As a classic example, a barium meal or barium swallow x-ray is compulsory for the x-ray view of soft tissue structure. It is also important in the rayon, glass, and ceramic industries. 
  • This is used as an agent for the hydrolysis of ester and nitrile moreover neutralizes strong acids.
  • It works as the principal reagent for Carbon dioxide gas. Its molar mass of it allows it to produce water and the metal compound BaCO3when it reacts with CO
  • Be it oil drilling or the rubber industry, barite is the best agent you can avail.
  • Another use of this is to count how much concentrated solution is made from a hydrating substance.

Now You Know!

This brings us to the end of our comprehensive blog on the Barium Hydroxide compound. Now that you have read it here, we hope you have all the required basics around the features and functions of this unique compound.  

Remember, while the compound is very effective inside the laboratory, it is dangerous outside it. Stay protective and aware of the presence of such chemical compounds in your surroundings. All the best! 

Frequently Asked Questions on Barium Hydroxide

Q1. Is Barium Hydroxide ionic?

Yes, the compound is ionic in its original state; Barium Hydroxide is ionic. It comprises a cation (Ba2+)  and an anion (OH), making it neutralized in this form. Therefore, to neutralize the formation, the

OHions are multiplied by two times.

Q2. What are the physical attributes of a Barium Hydroxide?

Ba(OH)2 is the chemical formula. Per the physical properties, it’s a clear white, granular powder with no smell. However, it should be noted that the chemical compound is poisonous.

Q3. What makes Barium Hydroxide unsafe?

A: Barium Hydroxide is a rapidly reacting compound. It not only reacts with the skin but is also dangerous in multiple aspects. The compound can cause several hazards, like eye damage, skin irritation, and poisoning.

Q4.What are the uses of barium hydroxide?

A: It is utilized in the industry as a precursor to a number of different barium compounds. This substance’s monohydrate is frequently used to dehydrate and remove sulfate from a variety of items. In this application, barium sulfate’s extremely low solubility is used. 

Q5. How is barium hydroxide prepared? 

A: Barium oxide (chemical formula: BaO) is typically dissolved in water to create this. Listed below is the reaction’s chemical equation. 

 BaO + 9 H2O = Ba (OH)2 + 8 H2O 

It should be noted that this molecule crystallizes as an octahydrate, which is subsequently changed into a monohydrate by heating it in the presence of air. 

Barium Hydroxide


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