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Electric Charge

Aug 22, 2022
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Key Concepts

  • Introduction
  • Charges
  • Discovery of charge

Explanation: 

Introduction to electrical energy: 

Electricity is a form of energy created by the flow of electrons. Electricity is bound by the charges, which make an electric field. When charges travel from one place to another, they create current, which is further used as electric energy. 

Points to be remembered in electrical energy: 

  1. Electricity is a form of energy. 
  1. Electricity is generated in the electric field. 
  1. The movement of charges is called current; current usage is called electric energy. 
  1. Current is measured in ampere.  

Charges: 

Charges in electric energy are divided into two types: 

  1. Positive charge 
  1. Negative charge  

Positive charge: 

The positive charge is the positive ion which is attracted by the negative terminal of a circuit, positive charge repels each other, positive and negative charge attract each other  

Negative charge: 

The negative charge is the negative ion which is attracted by the positive terminal of a circuit, negative charge repels each other, positive and negative charge attract each other.  

Experiment to demonstrate the attraction and repulsion: 

Take two balloons of different colours are hanged to a stick, 

parallel

Case 1: 

Let us consider two positively charged balloon A and B. If the two balloons are brought close together, they repel each other as they possess same charge.  

Case 2: 

Let us consider the A and B balloons charged positive and negative using a silk cloth. If the balloons are brought close together, they attract each other as the two possess different charge.   

From the above experiment, we can observe that like charges repel and opposite charges attract.  

Discovery of electric charge: 

Benjamin Franklin in America tried experiments with charges. Franklin named the two kinds of electric charges ‘positive’ and ‘negative.’ He even collected electric charges from thunderstorm clouds through the wet string of a kite. 

The observation and the discovery happened when Franklin was flying a kite, and the thunderstorm from the clouds hit kite. 

parallel

Then he concluded that the clouds were carrying the negative charge and the Earth had positive charge; hence the negative charge was attracted by the positive charge.  

Hence Franklin distinguished the charges into two  

  1. Positive charge 
  1. Negative charge  

Summary

Electricity is a form of energy that is created by the flow of electrons.

Charges:

Charges in electric energy are divided into two types: O

  1. Positive charge
  2. Negative charge

Discovery of electric charge:

Benjamin Franklin in America tried experiments with charges. Franklin named the two kinds of electric charges ‘positive’ and ‘negative’. He even collected electric charges from thunderstorm clouds through the wet string of a kite.

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