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Biosphere and Atmosphere Interactions

Aug 19, 2022

Key Concepts

  • Earth
  • Atmosphere
  • Biosphere


Earth is the place where we live. It is the third planet from the sun. 70% of the earth is covered by water. The planet earth is made of a sub-system called spheres. The sub-systems are called spheres because it is round in shape like the earth. 


Earth’s spheres 

There are four spheres of earth. They are – geosphere (land), hydrosphere (water), atmosphere (air) and biosphere (living things). 

Three spheres are abiotic, and one sphere, i.e., the biosphere, is biotic. Geosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere are abiotic. Abiotic means substances made from non-living things such as soil, air, water, rocks, clouds, etc., whereas biotic means substances are made from living things such as plants and animals. 

Four spheres of earth 


The area of the earth that includes rocks, soil, mountains, and minerals is called the geosphere. Geo means earth; sphere means round. 

Examples of geosphere – Rocks
Examples of geosphere –  sand dunes
Examples of geosphere – Mountains
Examples of geosphere – soil 



All of the earth’s water is collectively called the hydrosphere. Hydro means ‘water’. All of the earth’s water bodies, such as rivers, ponds, lakes, oceans, glaciers, and groundwater, are parts of the hydrosphere. 

 Examples of hydrosphere – River
 Examples of hydrosphere – glacier 

On earth, water is present in all three states – solid, liquid and gas. 

Three states of water – Water (liquid), ice (solid) and mist(gas)




The air present on earth makes its atmosphere. Atmos means air. Atmosphere consists of all gases essential for the survival of living things. Air consists of 78% of nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 1% other gases. Atmosphere also contains dust particles, pollutants, water vapor and pollens. 

 Composition of air 


Biosphere involves all life on the earth, i.e., plants, animals and human beings. Biosphere includes all kinds of life such as microorganisms in the soil, water, air, life underwater. The habitat of all living things makes up part of the biosphere. The following images show the habitat of living things in the biosphere. Biosphere is a combination of all the spheres. All living things need non-living things for their growth and survival. 

Earthworm in the soil, plants on the land

 Life under water, life in forest


• There are four spheres of earth – geosphere (land), hydrosphere (water), atmosphere, (air) and biosphere (living things).

• The area of the earth that includes rocks, soil, mountains, and minerals is called the geosphere.

• All of the earth’s water is collectively called the hydrosphere.

• The air present on earth makes its atmosphere.

• Biosphere involves all life on the earth.


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