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Features of Plants for Reproduction – Types of Reproduction

Aug 19, 2022
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Features of Plants for Reproduction

introductionIntroduction

Living organisms produce their offspring similar to themselves through a process called reproduction. Plants also undergo reproduction for continuity of life on Earth.  

biosphereExplanation

Reproduction – Production of a offspring from parents is known as reproduction. There are different ways plants produce their offspring; the modes of reproduction are:  

  1. Asexual reproduction  
  1. Sexual reproduction  

Asexual reproduction

An indivual organism gives rise to a new organism without the fusion of gametes. The new individual is identical to their parent. 

Asexual modes of reproduction  

  1. Fission- Parent cell divides itself into two equal cells, example bacteria. 
  1. Budding- A bud is formed on the parent individual, it develops and detaches from the parent body and develops as a new individual. 
  1. Spore formation- Plants like ferns, moss, fungi reproduce through spore formation; each spore germinates and develops into new individual. 
  1. Regeneration- When the organism is cut or broken into pieces, each piece starts growing as an individual, e.g., – when a lizard loses its tail, a new tail grows. 
  1. Fragmentation The organism breaks and each piece develops into a new individual. 

Vegetative Propagation:

Vegetative propagation is asexual method of reproduction that occurs in  leaves, roots and stem.Two types of vegetative propagation: 

  1. Natural 
  1. Artificial  

Stem 

Runners grow horizontally above the ground. The buds are formed at the nodes of the runners. 

parallel

Roots 

New plants emerge out of swollen, modified roots known as tubers. Buds are formed at the base of the stem. 

Leaves 

Leaves of a few plants get detached from the parent plant and develop into a new plant. 

Bulbs 

Bulbs have an underground stem to which the leaves are attached. These leaves are capable of storing food. 

Features of Plants for Reproduction

Artificial Vegetative Propagation- 

Cutting 

In this method, a part of a plant is cut along with the node and is buried in the soil. 

Grafting 

In this method, the parts of two different plants are joined together such that they continue to grow as a single plant. The root is known as the stock. The other plant is known as the graft. 

parallel

Layering 

It is the method in which a stem attached to a plant is lowered in the ground and covered with soil. The stem grows roots while attached to the parent plant and then detaches as an independent plant. 

Sexual reproduction:

In this reproduction process two parents are involved in producing new individual,i.e., one male and one female is required to give rise to a new individual.  

Flowers contain male sex organs called as stamens and female sex organs called as pistils. Anther is a part of the stamen that contains pollen; these pollen grains move through the pistil called as stigma.  

Pollination – There are two types of pollination  

 

Self pollination – Transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of a same flower or to the stigma of another flower of same plant.  

self pollination

Cross pollination – Transfer of pollen from anther to the stigma of another flower of a different plant. 

cross pollination

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