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Concept, Types and Changes in the Gene Pool

Grade 10
May 4, 2023

This article will teach us about Concepts, Types, and Changes in the Gene Pool. Let’s begin with natural selection.

Natural Selection

  • Natural selection is the process by which organisms learn to adapt to changes in their environment due to adverse conditions. Those organisms that can adapt to changes will live for a longer period and generate a large number of offspring. In addition, organisms will acquire features due to various adaptations handed down to future generations and distinguish that organism from others.
  • The natural selection consists of two things: generating offspring and surviving in varied conditions. With each creature varying from the others and many changes occurring, the way these organisms survive and create more children will make them more dominant and their genes, resulting in longer survival.
  • Natural selection may be demonstrated with an example. When organisms adapt well to their environment and suddenly face adverse conditions, their offspring must adjust to the changes to live and pass on their traits to the next generation, and the cycle continues.
  • Only organisms that have adapted will be able to reproduce and continue the evolutionary process. Even between two species, there will be differences, and these distinctions will allow them to continue reproducing; otherwise, their species will become extinct.

Gene Pool

  • The total number of genes in a population is called the gene pool. It is generally limited to a single species within a population. Determining the gene pool is critical in studying a population’s genetic diversity. The more genetically varied a population, the more likely it is to acquire features that improve biological fitness and survival.
  • A vast gene pool signifies a high level of genetic variation and greater possibilities of biological fitness and survival. Conversely, a tiny gene pool signifies little genetic diversity, a lower likelihood of gaining biological fitness, and an increased risk of extinction. Genetic equilibrium is a state in which the frequency of a gene pool does not change because the evolutionary forces operating on the allele are equal. As a result, even after numerous generations, the population does not develop.
  • The gene pool increases when a mutation occurs and survives. Conversely, when the population number is considerably reduced, the gene pool shrinks. (e.g., famine, genetic disease, etc.). Low fertility and an increased risk of genetic disorders and abnormalities are some implications of a tiny gene pool.

Population Vs Gene Pool

  • The gene pool represents the number of genes, the diversity of genes, and the type of genes found in a population. It may be used to estimate gene frequencies or the ratio of different types of genes in a population.
  • A gene pool signifies that a population has a high level of genetic variation. This is connected with robust populations that can withstand periods of intensive selection. When all individuals in a group are identical in terms of a certain phenotypic characteristic, the population is said to be monomorphic. Conversely, individuals are said to be polymorphism when they differ in a certain characteristic.
  • The composition of a population’s gene pool can alter throughout time as a result of evolution. This can happen through a multitude of methods, including mutations, genetic drift, and natural selection.

Gene Pool

Concept of Gene Pool 

  • The concept of a gene pool was invented by Russian biologist Alexander Sergeevich Serebrovsky, who invented the term Geno fond, which translates to “gene pool.” The gene pool is a big pool of genetic variability within a single species. This covers all alleles present at a given locus in a population of a certain species.
  • The gene pool meaning also covers all genes regardless of expression, i.e., whether they are expressed or not, they are all regarded in the gene pool meaning. The gene pool is frequently evaluated when a population is resilient and can withstand rigorous natural selection processes.
  • The concept of biological fitness is another concept related to the concept of gene pool. Biological fitness is defined by a species’ gene pool’s ability to resist numerous changes that might result in intense natural selection. If a species cannot adapt to changing environmental conditions, it may go extinct.
  •  Biological fitness refers to a species capacity to adapt to changes. The gene pool can influence the biological fitness of a species.

Alexander Serebrovsky

  • If the gene pool has a lot of variation in the alleles, the species’ biological fitness is said to be high, but if there is little diversity, the species’ fitness is said to be low. Thus, according to the gene pool concept, great genetic variation in the gene pool leads to high fitness. Still, low genetic diversity caused by inbreeding or bottleneck events might produce lower biological fitness and higher possibilities of extinction.
  • There are several situations in which a species can persist even with low genetic diversity, i.e., poor biological fitness if the fitness is raised by processes such as genetic drift. The shift in the frequency of a certain gene variant – the allele – for a specific species is referred to as genetic drift.
  • If, as a result of such changes, new genetic variations that are more adaptive to changing environments are introduced into the species’ population, there is a potential that the species’ biological fitness will increase even if the diversity in the gene pool is low.
  •  Thus, the gene pool meaning does not signify biological fitness in and of itself. Still, it is an indication of biological variety that provides meaningful information about the fitness of the species population.

Changes in the Gene Pool

  • Changes in the gene pool can also affect the genetic diversity of a species population. In addition, the content of the gene pool can change over time due to the processes that drive evolution. Various factors, including mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift, can cause changes in the makeup of the gene pool. With changes in the environment, these changes are critical for the survival of any group of animals.
  • These genetic variances result in the formation of a varied gene pool, which allows individuals in the population to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Therefore, changes in the human gene pool may also be considered as an example of change. For example, skin pigmentation changed over time as the human population moved from tropical areas to northern temperatures.
  • When the human population was subjected to low levels of sunshine, the skin’s color shifted to a lighter shade to increase Vitamin D absorption. The genetic variations caused by environmental changes formed a part of the human gene pool in that specific location.

Genetic diversity

  • The capacity of a population of a given species to adapt to and evolve in a certain environment can be impacted in part by the gene pool. Therefore, these modifications may be beneficial in increasing the variety of the gene above the pool.
  • However, this does not imply that genetic diversity and gene pool will be synonymous in a phrase. Instead, genetic variety is a feature that arises through many processes that result in the formation of a population of organisms.
  • A population containing a gene pool might have simply one genetic variant of a gene or numerous alleles.

Types of Gene Pools in Crop Breeding

  • The process of natural selection and vast quantities of evidence for evolutionary change from many sources were Darwin’s original contributions. He also explained how evolution affects our knowledge of life’s past and contemporary biological variety.
  • Species (interbreeding populations of organisms) evolve through time and space. Consequently, today’s representatives of species differ from those that existed in the recent past, and populations in various geographic locations differ somewhat in shape or behavior.
  • All creatures have ancestors in common with other species. Populations may split over time into separate species that share a common ancestor. If you go far enough back in time, two species will have a common ancestor. The shared ancestry of organisms explains their similarities: their similarities reflect the inheritance of features from a common ancestor.
  • Tertiary Gene Pool: This pool comprises completely different species than the gene pool under consideration, and there is extremely little or nearly no chance of forming hybrids via a crossing. It is possible to say that this is the shallow end of the gene pool.

Types of Gene pool

Gene Pool


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