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Geosphere and Hydrosphere Interactions

Aug 19, 2022

Key Concepts

  • Earth
  • Geosphere
  • Hydrosphere
  • Atmosphere
  • Biosphere


Earth is the place where we live. It is the third planet from the sun. 70% of the earth is covered by water. The planet earth is made of a sub-system called spheres. The sub-systems are called spheres because it is round in shape like the earth. 


biosphereEarth’s spheres

There are four spheres of the earth – geosphere (land), hydrosphere (water), atmosphere (air) and biosphere (living things). 

Three spheres are abiotic, and one sphere, i.e., the biosphere, is biotic. The geosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere are abiotic. Substances made from non-living things such as soil, air, water, rocks, clouds, etc., form the abiotic elements, whereas substances made from living things such as plants and animals form the biotic element. 

Four spheres of earth 


The area of the earth that includes rocks, soil, mountains and minerals is called the geosphere. Geo means earth; sphere means round. Geosphere is sometimes called the lithosphere. Geosphere is a natural place to grow food. Mountains, sand dunes, sand, rocks soil are all part of the geosphere. 

Examples of geosphere – Rocks
Examples of geosphere – sand dunes 


Examples of geosphere – Mountains
Examples of geosphere – soil 


All the water present on the earth collectively forms the hydrosphere. Hydro means ‘water’. All water bodies such as rivers, ponds, lakes, oceans, glaciers, and groundwater are part of the hydrosphere. 97% of the earth’s water is present in the oceans. Water is a very essential for the survival of living things. Life is impossible without water. 

Examples of hydrosphere – River
Examples of hydrosphere – glacier

Examples of hydrosphere – Water stream
Examples of hydrosphere – ground water 

On earth, water is present in all three states – solid, liquid and gases. 


Solid state of water is snow and ice. Liquid state of water is water that is present in oceans, rivers, ponds and lakes. Mist in the air and dew on the ground are also liquid states of water. Gaseous state of water is water vapor in the atmosphere.

Three states of water – water (liquid)
Three states of water – glacier (solid)
Three states of water – mist(gas)


The air present on earth makes its atmosphere. ‘Atmos’ means air. Atmosphere consists of all gases essential for the survival of living things. Air consists of 78% of nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 1% other gases. Atmosphere also contains dust particles, pollutants, water vapor and pollens. 

Composition of air


Biosphere includes all life forms on the earth, i.e., plants, animals and human beings. Biosphere includes all kinds of life such as microorganisms in the soil, water, air, life underwater. The habitat of all living things makes up part of the biosphere. Following images shows the habitat of living things in the biosphere. 

Earthworm in the soil
plants on the land 

Life under water
 life in forest


• There are four spheres of the earth – geosphere (land), hydrosphere (water), atmosphere (air) and biosphere (living things).

• The area of the earth that includes rocks, soil, mountains and minerals is called the geosphere.

• All the water on earth collectively forms its hydrosphere.

• The air present on earth makes its atmosphere.

• Biosphere includes all life forms on the earth.



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