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Growth and Development – Introduction to Reproduction

Aug 20, 2022

Introduction to Growth and Development 


It is obvious that humans, plants and animals are living things. Non-living things do not have a life. Living things show certain characteristics which make them different from living things.  


Living things need food, water and air to survive. Food helps to grow, gives energy, and helps to fight diseases. Plants prepare their own food through a process called photosynthesis. Plants use water and carbon dioxide in the presence of sunlight, Hence plants are known as autotrophs; humans and animals depend on plants for their food, so they are known as heterotrophs.                                                           

Growth and Development

Living things grow – A  newborn baby grows into an adult. As living things grow, they increase in size; humans as well as animals become old and continue to grow till death. Similarly, plants also grow. When a seed sprouts, it is said to be germinated, the germinated seeds grow into a sapling, and the small plant grows into a tree. 

Living things grow
Living things grow

Living things respire – Living things respire to produce energy, respiration is the process of breathing in and out, living things breathe in oxygen and breath out carbon dioxide, oxygen enters into our body and creates energy with the help of food which we consume. 

Plants also respire. Leaves have tiny pores called stomata. Plants respire day and night. They breathe out oxygen and breath in carbon dioxide. 

Living things respire
Living things respire

Living things reproduce – living things are capable of reproducing their offspring; this process is known as reproduction. Animals reproduce by either laying eggs known as oviparous animals or by giving birth to their young ones, known as viviparous animals. 

Plants also produce seeds that germinate into a new plant. 

Living things reproduce

Living things give birth, grow old and die. Before they die in an adult stage, they give birth to their young ones. This cycle of life goes on. The period of an organism to complete its life cycle is known as a life span.  

A living thing’s life starts with a single cell. Cell is the basic unit of life, all living organisms are made up of cells. Cells divide to form a large number of cells; they are minute and cannot be seen with the naked eye. We can observe cells under a microscope. 

Living things reproduce

Structural Organization  

Some of the organisms are multicellular, like plants, animals, and humans. Our body is made up of millions of cells. Cells are in different shapes, sizes and structures.  


Cells form tissues, tissues form organs, organs form an organ system, and organ systems develop into organisms.  

Structural Organization  


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