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Constituents of Matter – Atoms & Elements

Aug 22, 2022
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Constituents of Matter

introductionIntroduction

An atom is the smallest unit of matter that retains all the properties of an element. Atoms combine to form molecules. An atom is the basic form of matter. The matter has mass and occupies space. The matter is defined as everything composed of elementary particles. All matter is made up of tiny particles, such as atoms, molecules or ions.   

Each particle attracts other particles. In other words, each particle attracts other particles towards itself. These particles are always moving.  

There are four states or forms of matter.  

  • Solid 
  • Liquid 
  • Gas 

biosphereExplanation

Building blocks of matter consists of all explanations of atoms, states of matter and etc. 

The matter has mass and occupies space. Matter is defined as everything composed of elementary fermions. 

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The matter is classified into mixtures and pure substances. 

Atom: 

An atom consists of the nucleus at the center. An atom is the basic unit of matter. Atom consists of three sub-atomic particles. Electron, proton and neutrons are the sub-atomic particles of an atom. An atom is the basic constituent unit of matter, which does not exist independently and forms ions and molecules. 

 Explaining the atom by taking the example of the solar system: In the solar system, the sun is in the center, and the planets revolve around the sun in a circular orbit in the same way as in the atom. The nucleus is in the center and the electrons revolve around the nucleus in a circular orbit.  

Constituents of Matter

Elements: 

An element is a pure substance formed with atoms that contain the same number of protons. Element is the basic form of matter which cannot be broken down into simpler particles. 

Examples: Hydrogen (H2

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Oxygen (O2

Carbon

Molecule and compound. 

Two or more atoms combine to form a molecule, in which molecule is an independently existing. It won’t be dependent on any other. 

A compound is a substance composed of the same or an identical atom with two or more elements. 

A molecule consisting of atoms of only one element is, therefore, not a compound. 

molecule and compound

There are three different states of matter, they are solid, liquid and gases. 

Solid: 

A solid is a matter with a definite shape and volume. A solid does not change to take the shape of the container it is in. As molecules spread apart, they take up more space. 

Example: Spong, chalk, blackboard. 

Liquid: 

A liquid is a matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape. A liquid takes the shape of its container but keeps the volume the same. The molecules in most liquids are spread out more than those in solids but not nearly as much as those in gases. 

Example: Juice, water, milk. 

Gases: 

Gas is a matter that does not have a definite shape or volume. A gas will fill the container it is in. 

Example: Balloon, gas cylinder. 

Gases

Summary

  • An atom is the smallest unit of matter that retains all the properties of an element.
  • Gas is a matter that does not have a definite shape or volume.
  • The molecules in most liquids are spread out more than those in solids but not nearly as
    much as those in gases.
  • All matter is made up of tiny particles, such as atoms, molecules or ions.
  • Two or more atoms combine to form a molecule. A compound is a substance composed of
    the same or an identical atom with two or more elements.
  • An atom consists of three sub-atomic particles. Electron, proton, and neutrons are the
    sub-atomic particles of an atom.
  • An element is a pure substance formed with atoms that contain the same number of protons.

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