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Investigation of Matter and its Properties

Aug 22, 2022
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Key Concepts

  • Matter
  • Properties and changes in matter
  • Physical and chemical properties

Introduction: 

Matter:  

We see many different things around us. Some of them are living, and some are non-living. All these are made up of matter. For example: The air we breathe, the food we take, the things which are around us all are matter. 

Matter is anything that has mass and volume. All matter has physical and chemical properties. Physical properties, which include state, color, and density, can be measured or observed by simply examining an individual substance. Chemical properties, which include reactivity and combustibility, can be detected only by observing how a substance reacts with other substances. 

Properties and their changes: 

A chemical change is a change in matter that occurs when substances recombine to form new substances. Chemical properties are the ones when one substance reacts with the other substance. 

For example, when you light a magnesium sparkler, it goes through a chemical change that you can see; it glows in a bright white color. Burning brightly is a chemical property of magnesium. Some substances combine explosively when heated. Fireworks designers make use of this chemical property. 

Physical change may involve a change of appearance, but no new substances are formed. For example, iron glows in red color when it is heated. Changes in the state (melting and boiling) are also examples of physical change. 

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heating iron

Physical Properties: 

Think of a simple substance you have used recently—maybe sugar or salt or water. What color was it, or was it colorless? What was its melting point or boiling point? When you answer questions like these, you are describing the properties of matter. 

Physical Properties
Physical property Description 
State Solid, liquid, gas 
Color Red, Blue, Yellow and etc. 
Malleability Ability to be bent into thin sheets 
Ductility Ability to be drawn into thin wires 
Density Ratio of a material’s mass to its volume 
Melting point  Temperature at which solid converts to liquid. 
Boiling point  Temperature at which liquid converts to vapour. 
Solubility Ability to dissolve in water 
Luster Degree to which the material reflects light 

Chemical properties:  

The chemical properties of a substance will also determine its usefulness.  

For example, jewelry is often made of gold or platinum. These metals do not react easily with air or water, so they will not deteriorate over time, as does copper or iron. Copper, iron, and even silver react with air and water, producing a dull finish. 

Chemical property Description 
Reactivity When substances react with each other by using some external or internal resources.  
Combustion of substances Substances when reacted in the presence of air or oxygen. 
Acidity Acids react with carbonates, hydrogen carbonates, etc. 
Flammability Substances that will be burnt or ignited. 

Summary:

  1. Matter is anything that has mass and volume. All matter has physical and chemical properties.
  2. Physical properties include state, color and density.
  3. Chemical properties include reactivity, combustion, and acidity.
  4. A chemical change is a change in matter that occurs when substances recombine to form a new substance.
  5. Physical change is a change that involves a change of appearance, but no new substances are formed.
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