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Erosion- Explanation, Causes, Dangers, Prevention

Grade 2
Jun 1, 2023

Introduction to Earth materials

The four main parts of the Earth’s crust are called “Earth’s materials.” Rocks, minerals, soil, and water are the main materials of the Earth.


Change in the surface of the Earth

On Earth, physical processes produce change. Some changes are fast, while some are slow.

Processes like tectonic plate movement, wind and water erosion, and deposition shape structures on Earth`s surface.

The three most important processes that develop and reshape the surface of the Earth include weathering, erosion, and deposition.

Movement of tectonic plates
Movement of tectonic plates
Wind and water erosion
Wind and water erosion

Weathering and erosion

Weathering is the breakdown of rock into small pieces called sediments.


There is no movement in the weathering.

The movement of sediments from one place to another by means of water, wind, or ice is called erosion.


Explanation to Erosion

Erosion is the process by which land is largely removed by forces like water, wind, and ice.

This movement alters the shape of the land.

Mountain peaks, valleys, and coastlines are just a few of the interesting features of the Earth’s surface that have been shaped by erosion.


Weathering, a natural process that slowly breaks down the rock, is connected to erosion. Rock pieces and dirt are carried away from their original locations by erosion once the rock has been weathered.

The deposition is the end part of this process.

Rock and dirt pieces may be carried down by a river and then deposited there.


Causes of erosion

Erosion is carried on by a variety of natural factors.

Erosion can happen rapidly or take thousands of years, depending on the type of force.

Water, wind, and ice are the three primary factors that cause erosion.

Erosion due to wind
Erosion due to water
Erosion due to ice

Erosion on Earth is mostly caused by water

  • Rainfall – Rainfall can lead to erosion when it splashes against the Earth’s surface (known as splash erosion) and when raindrops build up and run in little streams.
Splash erosion
  • River erosion: Over time, rivers can cause a large amount of erosion.

River breakdown material on the river bottom and transport it ahead. The Grand Canyon, which was created by the Colorado River, is a prime example of river erosion.

River erosion
  • Waves: The coastline may erode due to ocean waves.

Pieces of rock and coastline break off due to the energy and force of the waves, altering the shape of the coastline over time.

Coastline erosion

Floods – Serious floods, which function like strong rivers, can speed up the process of erosion.

Flood water

Wind erosion

Particularly in dry places, wind erosion is a major form of erosion.

Wind erosion is most common in areas such as deserts, beaches, and plowed fields.

Wind erosion

Deflation: By gathering and removing dust and other loose materials, wind can cause erosion which is called deflation.


Abrasion: When these flying particles hit the ground and spread more particles, they may also erode; this is called abrasion.


Glaciers are huge rivers of ice that gradually move, carve out valleys, and shape mountains.


Dangers of erosion

  • Farmland can suffer great damage from erosion.
  • Rich soil is necessary for the good growth of crops.
  • However, this topsoil layer is rather thin. It can be carried away by wind and water in movement.

Prevention of erosion

  • Farmers use a variety of techniques to reduce erosion.
  • To reduce wind, farmers surround their fields with trees.
  • In sloping land, they also cut terraces or ledges. Instead of rushing down the slope and removing the soil, water collects on the terraces.
The Slow Process of Erosion


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