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The Volcanic Eruptions

Grade 6
Jun 3, 2023

In this article, we’ll learn about the causes and significance of volcanic eruptions. Let’s begin

How Does a Volcano Erupt?

  • The temperature deep within the Earth is high.
  • Massive stones begin to liquefy over time as a result of the intense heat, turning them into a thick liquid.
  • It is referred to as magma. Eventually, the magma begins to rise because it is lighter than the nearby rocks.
  • It gathers inside a magma chamber. The magma eventually builds pressure and tries to rise through ridges and outlets in the Earth’s crust; as a result, a volcanic eruption occurs.
  • The magma which has erupted is referred to as lava.

volcanic eruptions

Causes of Volcanic Eruptions

We are aware that the Earth’s mantle is very warm, with temperatures ranging from 1000° to 3000° Celsius. Due to the intense pressure and heat, the inner rocks melt.

The melted material weighs little. Due to its high level of flotation, this thin magma rises to the crust.

The magma rises to the surface and erupts because its density between the region of its formation and the crust is lower than that of the surrounding rocks.


Volcanic eruptions are primarily caused by three factors:

  • The magma’s buoyancy
  • The magma’s expelled gases being under pressure
  • Pressure on the chamber lid rising

Magma chamber

Significance of Volcanic Eruptions

There are many positive effects of volcanic eruptions. It includes soil enrichment, volcanic land formations, the formation of volcanic minerals and stones, hot springs, and geothermal energy.

Soil Enrichment

Ash from volcanic eruptions spreads across large areas near the eruption site.

The soil on volcanoes is extremely fertile. These mineral-rich laterite soils are referred to as rich soils. They are quite common in several nations, including Brazil and Italy.


The number of soil nutrients in this ash will vary depending on the chemistry of the magma from which it emerged.

Additionally, rock fragments are released by eruptions. Because of this, areas with significant deposits of volcanic soil—such as mountain slopes and valleys close to eruption sites—are very fruitful. For example, the majority of Italy’s soils are deficient and composed of limestone rock.

Soil Enrichment

Volcanic Land Formation

Frequent volcanic eruptions can result in the development of new land. Over time, the continuous flow of lava hardens, forming fresh ground suitable for human habitation. Iceland is one example of this.

Unique plant and animal species that were present when these islands first formed have since changed into new forms, resulting in stable ecosystems and increased biodiversity.

Volcanic land formation

Volcanic Stone and Minerals

The valuable gems, minerals, and building materials that volcanoes make available through their eruptions are another advantage. For example, mining is done for a variety of economic purposes for stones like pumice, volcanic ash, and perlite (volcanic glass).

These include serving as abrasives in home cleansers and soaps. Additionally utilized as a lightweight aggregate in cement production are volcanic ash and pumice.

Volcanic activity creates materials used in the construction industry, such as granite.

Tuff, or hardened volcanic ash, is a particularly durable and lightweight building material.

Tuff and lime were used by the ancient Romans to create durable, lightweight concrete for walls and structures. Due to its small weight, this particular form of concrete was used to construct the roof of the Pantheon in Rome.

Volcanic Stone and Minerals

Volcanic Stone and Minerals

Geothermal Benefits Through the Volcano

There are two types of geothermal fields, both of which are the product of recent or current magmatic activity. High-temperature fields (over 100°C) are related to active volcanism, and low-temperature fields (20-100°C) are caused by hot rock beneath active faults.

Hot springs, geysers, and boiling mud pools are frequently produced by geothermal areas and are frequently visited by visitors.

Geothermal energy is in charge of supplying a significant amount of the country’s electricity supply in places like Kenya, Iceland, New Zealand, the Philippines, Costa Rica, and El Salvador.

Geothermal Benefits Through the Volcano

Formation of Volcanic Mountains

Areas with volcanic activity are where volcanic mountains form.

Around the volcano’s opening, lava flows and debris accumulate to form volcanic mountains. Numerous larger mountains have undergone this process over the ages, with numerous eruptions gradually raising the peak higher and higher.

Cones or shield mountains are two different ways that volcanoes can create mountains.

Formation of Volcanic Mountains

Cinder Cone Mountains

When the material is ejected from a volcanic vent and subsequently falls to the surface, it builds up into cinder cone mountains, which are volcanic. Because of the way molten rock and ash accumulate, these mountains typically have a more jagged or rough texture.

In regions with volcanic activity and plate cracks, cinder cones can be found all over the world.

The Taal mountain in the Philippines, the Luera, Fox, and Elephant mountains in Australia, the Manda-Inakir mountain on the Ethiopia/Djibouti border, the Hverfjall mountain in Iceland, the Paricutin and Pinacate mountains in Mexico, the Kula and Karapina cones in Turkey, the Kula and Karapina cones in Turkey, the Taal mountain in the Philippines, the Hverfjall mountain in Iceland, the Paricutin and Pinacate The Cerro Negro volcano, a cinder cone, is the most active one and is located in Nicaragua.

Cinder Cone Mountains

Shield Mountains

Shield mountains are the other kind of volcanic mountain. Like other volcanic mountains, these are created as magma escapes from fissures or vents and rises to the Earth’s surface.

However, this process is typically slower since the volcanoes produce oozing lava flows rather than eject magma forcefully.

Viscous rivers of lava produce a flow of liquid rock that oozes out of the fractures before solidifying and cooling on the surface. These flows fluctuate in speed, sometimes flowing quickly and other times slowly, but in either case, they gradually deposit layers of rock.

Shield mountains can also be seen in a broad variety of other places, such as Santorini in Greece, Pantelleria in Italy, Fukue-jima in Japan, several cities around Kamchatka, Upolu in Samoa, Socorro, and San Martin in Mexico.

Shield Mountains

Volcanic Eruptions


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