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# Magnetism and Magnetic Field – Experiments

## Introduction

### Magnetic Force:

Magnetic force is the force of attraction or repulsion which acts between two magnets.

### Nature of Magnetic Force:

• Magnetic force is a non-contact force.
• Magnetic force is sometimes attractive and sometimes repulsive.

### Magnetic Field:

The magnetic field is the region around a magnet where the force of attraction or repulsion can be detected.

We can study the magnetic field of a magnet using a magnetic needle.

## Explanation:

### Plotting Magnetic Field Lines

• The magnetic field around a magnet can be detected by plotting magnetic field lines.
• The magnetic field lines around a magnet can be observed by moving a magnetic compass around a magnet.

### Magnetic Field Lines

• Magnetic field lines are the imaginary lines around a magnet along which the north pole of a magnetic compass needle tends to move.
• Magnetic field lines are used to show the direction of magnetic force.

### Properties of Magnetic Field Lines:

• The magnetic field lines emerge at the north pole and merge at the south pole.
• The magnetic field lines are very close at the poles where the magnetic field is strong.
• The magnetic field lines do not intersect each other.
• The relative strength of the magnetic field is shown by the degree of closeness of the field lines; the closer the line, the stronger the field.

### Oersted’s Experiment:

In the year 1820, Hans Christian Oersted discovered the magnetic effect of electric current. Oersted recorded the following observations.

• If a magnetic compass is placed near a conductor carrying current wire, the needle is deflected.
• If the direction of the current is changed, the needle shows deflection in just the opposite direction.
• When there is no current in the current-carrying wire, the needle shows no deflection.

### Conclusion of Oersted’s Experiment:

A current-carrying conductor creates a magnetic field around it. This magnetic field exerts a magnetic force on the magnetic needle, due to which it gets deflected. Oersted’s experiment proves that a current-carrying conductor is always associated with a magnetic field.

## Summary

• Magnetic Field: The region around a magnet where the force of attraction or repulsion can be detected is called the magnetic field.
• the magnetic field lines around a magnet can be observed by moving a magnetic compass around a magnet.
• Properties of Magnetic Field lines:
• The magnetic field lines emerge at the north pole and merge at the south pole.
• The magnetic field lines are very close at the poles where the magnetic field is strong.
• The magnetic field lines do not intersect with each other.
• The relative strength of the magnetic field is shown by the degree of closeness of the field lines; the closer line, the stronger the field.
• In the year 1820, Hans christian oersted discovered the magnetic effect of electric current.
• Oersted’s Experiment Findings:
• If a magnetic compass is placed near a conductor carrying current wire, the needle is defected.
• If the direction of the current is changed, the needle shows deflection in just the opposite direction.
• When there is no current in the current carrying wire , the needle shows no deflection.
• A current- carrying conductor has a magnetic field around it.

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