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Interaction Between Spheres

Grade 5
Aug 4, 2023

Interaction Between Hydrosphere and Geosphere


Earth is the place where we live. It is the third planet from the sun. 70% of the earth is covered by water. The planet Earth is made of sub-systems called spheres. The sub-systems are called spheres because they are round in shape like the Earth.


Earth’s Spheres

There are four spheres of the earth. They are – the geosphere (land), hydrosphere (water), atmosphere (air), and biosphere (living things).

Four spheres of earth

Interaction Between Spheres

All the spheres of the earth interact with each other. Earths’ spheres do not work individually.  The action of one sphere affects the other sphere. In this topic, we will discuss the interaction between the hydrosphere and other three spheres(geosphere, biosphere and atmosphere). These interactions are shown with the help of the water cycle or these interactions are also known as the water cycle.

Earth’s spheres interact with each other in many ways. For example: Birds fly in the air. Here birds are biosphere, and the air is atmosphere. Water flows through soil particles. Soil is geosphere and water hydrosphere. We can see that spheres are very closely connected, forming a network. Hence any change in any one of the earth’s spheres results in a change in other spheres. Such type of changes that takes place in an ecosystem are called events.

Ecosystem is a community of biotic and abiotic elements or materials.


Community is a group of interacting organisms of the same species or different species living in a specific area. For example, forest community where plants, animals, birds and insects live together.

Forest ecosystem

Changes in the spheres can be caused by events.  It is also possible that an event can also cause changes in the earth’s spheres. This relationship between an event and a sphere is known as interaction. Interactions also take place between the spheres; for example, a change in the atmosphere can cause a change in the lithosphere, biosphere or hydrosphere, and vice versa.

Interaction of hydrosphere with atmosphere, geosphere

Let us see the examples of interaction between hydrosphere, atmosphere and geosphere.

Interaction of Hydrosphere With Atmosphere:

Example: Evaporation from water bodies (hydrosphere) such as oceans, rivers, ponds, lakes, etc., helps to form clouds and rain formation in the atmosphere. The atmosphere again helps to bring the rainwater to the water bodies(hydrosphere) such as oceans, rivers, etc., So here, the interaction is between hydrosphere à atmosphere à hydrosphere.

Water cycle

Example of Interaction of Hydrosphere with Geosphere:

Water (hydrosphere) gives the moisture that forms a medium for weathering and erosion of rocks. Rocks are examples of geosphere. The geosphere, in turn, supports melting of ice, and the melted water flow back into the oceans. The atmosphere provides heat energy that is required for weathering and erosion of rocks.


The ocean has impacts on weather and climate by accumulating heat energy from the sun, distribution of  heat and moisture around the globe, and weather systems. The various landforms like plains, volcanoes mountains, volcanoes have a great influence on the weather systems of the earth. It has an impact on local and global weather system.

Water Bodies Can Affect Changes in Global Weather and Temperature:

Water bodies like oceans absorb and releases heat very slowly (water cycle). Whereas heating and cooling of land is a fast process. This result in the difference in temperature at day and night on land and near water bodies, i.e, generally on land it is hot at day time and cool in the night. This heating and cooling pattern has an effect on rain and wind.

Ocean (water body, hydrosphere)

Landforms Affect Temperature and Weather:

When a storm passes through mountain ranges, hills and big buildings, it slows down due to obstruction in the flow of wind. This makes the storm weak and affects its strength. Here the other side of the mountain does not get the wind effect, and hence other side receives very less or no rain at all.

Landforms affect weather and climate

Volcano: Geosphere a hydrosphere

Volcanoes are the events that occur in the lithosphere. They release a significant amount of hot lava (lithosphere) that causes the melting of mountain glaciers (hydrosphere).  This may result in mudflow (geosphere) and flooding. Cooling and solidifying of lava results in the formation of igneous rocks.

Volcanic eruption


  • There are four spheres of the earth – geosphere (land), hydrosphere (water), atmosphere (air), and biosphere (living things).
  • The area of the earth that includes rocks, soil, mountains, and minerals is called the geosphere.
  • All of the earth’s water is collectively called the hydrosphere.
  • Earth’s spheres interact with each other in many ways.
  • Water bodies can affect changes in global weather and temperature.
Interaction Between Spheres of The Earth


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