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Introduction of Ecosystem: Biotic, Abiotic Factors & Types

Grade 2
Aug 20, 2022

Key Concepts 

  • Ecosystem 
  • Biotic and abiotic factors 
  • Types of ecosystems 


Think of your home and all of the things in it. You likely have furniture, books, food in your refrigerator, a family, and maybe even pets. Your home consists of a variety of living and non-living things. 


Can you identify and name the living and non-living things available in this room?​​ 

Like your home, an ecosystem is any community of living and non-living things that work together. 



An ecosystem is an environment where living and non-living things interact to survive. The ecosystem includes living things like plants and animals and non-living things like water, rocks, soil, and wind.  


Biotic and abiotic factors 

Biotic and abiotic factors make up the ecosystem.  

Biotic components are the living things in an ecosystem, such as plants and animals, whereas abiotic factors are non-living things such as water, soil, and the atmosphere. 

Biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem

Living and Non-living things 

All the living things breathe, grow, eat, move, and have senses.  

Some examples of living things are organisms such as plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria. 

 Living things 



Non-living things do not eat, grow, move, breathe, and reproduce.  

Some important examples of non-living things in an ecosystem are sunlight, wind, water, soil, and rocks.  

 Non-living things 

Types of Ecosystems 

There are two main types of ecosystems. 

Types of ecosystems

Terrestrial Ecosystem 

Terrestrial ecosystems are land-based ecosystems. These are found on land.  

Terrestrial ecosystems include forests, grasslands, deserts, and tundra ecosystems. 

Forest Ecosystem 

This ecosystem is a large area of land covered with trees and other woody plants filled with living animals.  

Forest ecosystem

Grassland Ecosystem 

The land is filled with low-growing plants such as grasses and wildflowers in a grassland ecosystem. 

Grassland ecosystem

Tundra Ecosystem 

These ecosystems are devoid of trees and are found in cold climates.  

These types of ecosystems are found in the Arctic or mountain tops. 

Tundra ecosystem

Desert Ecosystem 

A desert is a place that has very little rainfall.  

Desert ecosystem

Aquatic Ecosystem 

Aquatic ecosystems are present in a body of water. These are found in water.  

Aquatic ecosystems include freshwater ecosystems and marine ecosystems.  

Freshwater Ecosystem 

The freshwater ecosystem includes lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, and wetlands.  

Freshwater ecosystem 

Marine Ecosystem 

The marine ecosystem includes seas and oceans.  

 Marine ecosystem



  • The ecosystem includes plants, animals, and nonliving things likewater, rocks, soil, and wind.
  • Biotic factors are living, while abiotic factors are non-living.
  •  There are two types of ecosystems.
  •  Examples of terrestrial ecosystems include forests, grass, lands, deserts, and tundra.
  • Aquatic ecosystems are found in water.
  • Aquatic ecosystems include freshwater ecosystems and marine ecosystems.


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