## Key Concepts

- Use arrays to multiply with 3.
- Use arrays to multiply with 4.

**3.2 Apply properties: 3 and 4 as factors**

#### What is meant by factors?

A factor is a number that divides the given number without any remainder.

- The number 1 is the smallest factor of every number.
- Every number will have a minimum of two factors, 1 and the number itself.
- A number that has only two factors, 1 and the number itself, is called a prime number.

#### What are the factors of 3?

Factors of 3 are, 1 and 3

#### What are the factors of 4?

Factors of 4 are 1, 2, and 4

4 equals 2 x 2

4 = 2^{2}

**Real-life applications of factors: **

Dividing something into equal pieces, exchanging money, comparing prices, understanding time and making calculations.

### 3.2.1 Use arrays to multiply with 3

**Example1:**

Ria went to a playground. She arranged 3 rows of balls in the playground. There are 5 balls in each row. How many balls did Ria arrange?

Find 3 x 5

**Solution:**

**Step1**: Make an array for each multiplication sentence.

3 x 5 is 3 rows of 5. That is 2 fives plus one more five.

**Step2 :** Multiply 2 x 5=10

**Step3 **: 1 x 5 = 5.

**Step4 **: 10+5 = 15.

**Step5 **: Multiply 3 x 5 =15

Ria arranged 15 balls.

**Example2:**

Steven arranged 3 rows of strawberries in a plate. He put 4 strawberries in each row. How many strawberries did Steven arrange in the plate?

Find 3 x 4.

**Solution:**

**Step1**: Make an array for each multiplication sentence.

3 x 4 is 3 rows of 4. That is 2 fours plus one more four.

**Step2:** Multiply 2 x 4=8.

**Step3 **: 1 x 4 = 4.

**Step4 **: 8+4 = 12.

**Step5 **: Multiply 3 x 4 =12.

Steven arranged 12 strawberries.

### 3. 2. 2 Use arrays to multiply with 4

**Example1:**

Michael invited some of his friends to his house. He arranged 4 rows of cupcakes on the table for his friends. He put 5 cupcakes in each row. How many cupcakes did he arrange on the table?

Find 4 x 5

**Solution**:

**Step1**: Make an array for each multiplication sentence.

4 x 5 is 4 rows of 5

That is 2 fives plus 2 fives

**Step2**: Multiply 2 x 5 = 10

**Step3: **Add 10 + 10 = 20

So, 4 x 5 = 20

The boy arranged 20 cupcakes.

**Example2:**

John arranged 4 rows of chairs for a meeting. He put 4 chairs in each row. How many chairs did John arrange?

**Solution:**

**Step1:** Make an array for each multiplication sentence.

4 x 4 is 4 rows of 4.

That is 2 fours plus 2 fours.

**Step2**: Multiply 2 x 4 = 8

**Step3: **Add 8 + 8 = 16

So, 4 x 4 = 16

John arranged 16 chairs for the meeting.

## Exercise:

1. Find 4 x 6

2. Multiply the following:

3. Match the following:

4. Chrissy arranged 3 rows of plants in her garden. She put 8 plants in each row. How many plants did Chrissy arrange?

5. Fill in the blanks:

a. 3 x 5=_

b. 4x_= 16

c. 3×8=_

d. 4x = 28

6. David arranged 3 rows of bananas. He put 4 bananas in each row. How many bananas did David arrange?

7. Ria saw a goat farm which has 3 pens. Each pen has 5 goats. Find the number of goats on the farm.

8. Steven walks 4 miles each day. How many miles does Steven walk in one week?

**Concept map:**

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