## Key Concepts

- Graph transformations of functions.
- Analyze vertical translations of the functions.
- Analyze horizontal translations of the functions.
- Combine both vertical and horizontal translations of the functions.

## Parent functions

**1. Match the given functions with their parent functions: **

**Solution: **

### Comparison of graphs of the functions

**Example 1:** Sketch the graph of the functions √x and √x+2 and compare them.

When compared, the graph √x+2 has moved 2 units up to the graph √x.

**Example 2:** Sketch the graph of the functions ∛ and ∛x−1 and compare them.

When compared, the graph ∛x−1 has moved 2 units up to the graph ∛ .

**Vertical translations: **

**Example: **

Compare the graph of the function:

p(x) = |x|, q(x) = |x|−3 and g(x) = x+2

**Solution: **

When compared, the graph |x|−3 has moved 3 units down to the graph |x|.

When compared, the graph |x|+2 has moved 2 units up to the graph |x|.

Any function of the form g(x)=f(x)+k, where the value of x, g takes the output of f and adds the constant k.

**Vertical translation: **

For a given g(x)=f(x)+k, the graph of the function g is the function f translates k units vertically.

k>0 : shifts |k| units up

k<0: shifts |k| units down

**Example:** How the function f(x) = ∛ translated to obtain the graph of g(x) = ∛−5?

**Solution:**

g(x) = f(x)−5

k=−5k ; shifts

|−5| units down

So, the graph of the function g is the function f translates 5 units down vertically.

**Horizontal translations:**

**E****xample:**** **

Compare the graph of the functions x^{2}, (x−2)^{2} and (x+1)^{2}.

**Solution: **

When compared, the graph (x−2)^{2} has moved 2 units right to the graph x^{2}.

When compared, the graph (x+2)^{2} has moved 1 units right to the graph x^{2}. .

Any function g(x)=f(x−h) means that g takes the input of f and subtracts the constant h before applying function f.

### Horizontal translation

For a given g(x)=f(x-h), the graph of the function g is the function f translates k units vertically.

h>0 : shifts |k| units right

h<0: shifts |h| units lefts

**Example:** How the function f(x)=√x translated to obtain the graph of g(x) = √x−3

**Solution:**

g(x) = f(x−3)

h = 3; shifts

|3| units right

So, the graph of the function g is the function f translates 3 units right horizontally.

**Combine translations: **

**Example: **

Compare the graph of the functions √x and √x+1 – 2

**Solution: **

**Example: **

Compare the graph of the functions 2^{x} and 2^{x−2}+3.

**Solution: **

Any function in the form g(x) = f(x−h)+k

The combined horizontal and vertical translation are independent of each other.

Given: g(x) = f(x−h)+k the graph of the function g is the graph of function f translated h units horizontally, then translated k units vertically.

**Example:** Graph

g(x) = f(x+4)−1 for the function f(x).

**Solution:** Compare g(x) = f(x+4)−1 with g(x) = f(x−h)+k

We get h=−4 and k=−1

So, all the points of graph f are translated left 4 units and down 1 unit.

## Exercise

- For the function gx=fx-6, how does the value -6 affect the graph of the function ?
- For the function gx=fx+4, how does the value affect the graph of the function ?
- How is the function fx=2 translated to obtain the graph of ?

### Concept Summary

### What we have learned

- Graph transformations of functions.
- Analyze vertical translations of the functions.
- Analyze horizontal translations of the functions.
- Combine both vertical and horizontal translations of the functions.

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