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States of Matter – Solid, Liquid & Gas

Aug 20, 2022
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The Three States of Matter 

introductionIntroduction

Matter: 

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter cannot always be seen. Whatever is in our surroundings is made up of ‘matter’. All matters are made up of tiny particles, such as atoms, molecules or ions. All these tiny particles cannot be seen with our naked eye. These particles are in constant motion. We all know that matter exists in different forms in our nature. 

There are different types of matter and are classified into as follows: 

  • Solids 
  • Liquids 
  • Gases 

biosphereExplanation

As we know that matter exists in different forms in nature, some are substances that have their own shape, some substances occupy the shape of container and can even flow on the surface, and some substances neither flow nor have shape, but occupy the shape of the container. 

To make the study of materials and their properties easier, we classify them into groups and then study the general properties of each group.  

All matter can be broadly classified into three groups on the basis of its physical state, namely, solid, liquid or gaseous state. 

parallel

Let us learn about the different states of matter

Solids:   

  • Solids have definite shape and volume. 
  • A solid does not change to take the shape of the container it is in.  
  • Solid particles are tightly packed, so that the spaces between the particles are thin. 
  • The particles in all types of matter are always moving. A solid’s particles are vibrating in place. 
  • The force of attraction between the particles are undetermined. 
  • The rate of diffusion in solids is very low. 
  • The particles in a solid have less energy than the particles of liquids and gases. 
  • There is a strong force of attraction between the particles. 
  • Particles are not compressed. 
States of Matter

Liquids: 

  • Liquids take the shape of a container and they flow on the surface. 
  • Liquids do not have shape but have fixed volume. 
  • Particles are not tightly packed as in solids. Spaces between the particles are free. 
  • Liquids have small empty spaces between the particles. They cannot be compressed. 
  • Liquids can diffuse because they can change their places. 
  • Liquids have high density as the particles are close together in a particular container. 
  • Both solids and liquids are termed as compressed matter. 
Liquid 

Gases: 

  • Gases do not have fixed shape or fixed volume. 
  • In gases, the particles are not tightly packed, they are free to move anywhere. 
  • Particles in the gases are far from each other. 
  • Gases can be compressed and can move easily throughout the container. 
  • Particles in gases have a lot of energy as they have more space between them. 
  • Gas particles move very fast. 
  • Force of attraction between the particles is negligible because they have more space between them. Hence, they can move easily.  
  • The rate is diffusion is higher than solids and liquids. 
Gas 

Comparing all the three states of matter. 

 Solid
  Liquid
Gas

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For example, water is made out of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom which upon combining form a molecule of H2O. 

Water has three differentstates: solid(ice), liquid (water), and gas (water vapor).   

In solid state, particles get close together and they are tightly packed. Therefore, the particles cannot move freely and cannot be compressed.  Particles in liquid state are not much tightly packed as in the case of solids, but they can move a little freely than the particles in solids. In a gas, particles are not tightly packed and they can move much more freely in all the directions. 

Activity:

Write any five examples of solid, liquid and gases, that you can Spot around you.

Summary

  1. Matter is anything which has mass and occupies space. Matter cannot always be seen.
  2. All matter can be broadly classified into three groups on the basis of its physical state,
    namely, solid, liquid or gaseous state.
  3. Solids have definite shape and Volume.
  4. Gases do not have have fixed shape or fixed volume.
  5. Liquids take the shape of container and they flow on the surface.
  6. Liquids do not have shape but have fixed volume.
  7. Solid particles are tightly packed, so that the spaces between the particles are thin.
  8. The particles in all types of matter are always moving. A solid’s particles are vibrating
    in place.

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