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Informational Text – Features, Types with Examples

Class 3
May 31, 2023

Informational Text

Any piece of writing falls under the category of fiction or non-fiction.

Fiction is a work of imagination (made up story), whereas non-fiction is based on facts and actual events or real people.

Informational texts are non-fiction works that inform the readers about a specific topic. Informational texts are found in newspapers, magazines, instruction manuals, science and history books, etc.

Organization of Informational Texts

Some of the cues like table of contents, index and glossary, etc., help the readers to find specific information.

  • Table of contents at the beginning of a book lists the chapters with page numbers. This helps the readers to look for specific topics.
  • Index which is present at the back of a book lists various topics with page numbers so that one can locate that topic.
  • Glossary gives the meaning and definitions of words.

Written Cues

  • These texts use different types and sizes of fonts to emphasize keywords.
  • Some words are written in bold or italics to show that they are important.
  • Bullets and numbers are used to organize information in lists.
  • Headings, subheadings and labels are used to categorize information. Headings may have larger fonts so that the reader can locate a particular portion in the text.

Informational Text Images

  • These texts contain images and graphics to help the reader understand the topics.
  • Informational texts contain diagrams, illustrations, photographs, charts, table maps, etc., which provide details in the form of pictures.
  • Most of the pictures have captions that connect them with the text.
  • For example, Science books have diagrams of body parts or plant parts. Charts and graphs are found in maths books etc.

Informational Text Features

Informational texts contain special text features which help the readers to find important information and understand the topic. These are components of the article that are not in the main body of the text.


The Text Features in Informational Texts are:

  1. Titles: Titles appear at the top of the page or front of a book. They tell us what the book or the chapter is about.
  2. Subtitles: Subtitles give us more information about the title.
  3. Headings: Headings help to organize information into sections.
  4. Subheadings: Subheadings are used to organize information into smaller sections.
  5. Table of contents: Mostly non-fiction books have a table of contents in the beginning. It helps us to identify in which page each chapter begins.
  6. Index: An index is the very last page of a book. There we can find out the page number of important keywords or information. In an index, words are listed in alphabetical order.
  7. Glossary: It is a mini dictionary found at the end of the book. It gives us the definitions of keywords. Sometimes bold and italic words are used in the glossary.
  8. Charts, graphs and tables: These are used in non-fiction books to share information. They help to organize data so that it becomes easy for the readers to read. Graphs help to organize and compare information in a visual way. Tables organize facts in a visual way which makes it easier for the readers.
  9. Captions: Captions are present underneath photographs and illustrations. They give us more information about the picture.
  10. Diagrams: These are simple drawings that show the parts of something or its working. Diagrams have labels which name each part.
  11. Labels: These are words used to describe parts of a picture.
  12. Maps: Maps are used in some non-fiction materials to show the location of a place.
  13. Timelines: Timelines are used to show the order in which certain events happened. These are usually used with historical events.
  14. Photographs: These are taken using a camera and they show what something looks like.
  15. Illustrations: Illustrations are drawn by an artist and they show what something looks like.
  16. Bold and italic letters: Bold and italic letters are used to draw attention to important words. Words are written in dark and heavy lines to make them bold. Italic letters are slanted.

Types of Informational Texts Structures

The text structure denotes the way each text is written.

The Different Types of Informational Texts Based on their Structure are:

1. Descriptive or Definition

Such texts explain a topic. The main concept is defined first and then expanded with examples.

The signal words used are referred to, defined as, for instance, to illustrate etc.

For example: Science textbooks, news articles, information sheet about products for sale

2. Problem – Solution

This type of text states a problem and suggests one or more solutions.


The signal words used are the problem is, the solution is, the problem is solved by etc.

For example: A speech with a remedy for a particular problem

3. Sequence/ Time

In this structure, information about a topic is given in a particular order. If the order is changed the meaning would change.

The signal words used are first, second, third, then, before etc.

For example: Recipes, instruction manuals

4. Comparison – Contrast

This text structure involves pointing out the similarities and differences between two or more topics or objects.

 The signal words used are same as, different from, alike, similarly etc.

For example: Articles comparing two sports teams

5. Cause – Effect

This kind of text shows the relationship between the cause of something and the effect of the result.

The signal words used are so that, because of, reasons for, if…then etc.

For example: Warning labels which state the side effects of using a product.

Informational Texts Features


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