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Informational Texts- Identify the Types of Text and Features

Grade 10
May 19, 2023

Writing – Informational Texts


Study the newspaper(picture). Identify the type of text and list out its features.

informational text

The newspaper is an example of informational text because it gives information of all the things/events happening in and around.

The above newspaper(image), which is an informational text, has the following features:

  1. Heading/title
  2. Sub-heading
  3. Pictures/images
  4. Different types of fronts
  5. Bolded words

You have just seen– things like titles, headings, graphs, pictures, bolded words, index, tables of content, etc., in one of the informational texts (NEWSPAPERS).


These are called external text structures. This is because external text structures can access and understand the text more readily.

Next, we will discuss another important aspect of informational text, internal text structure.

The required information can be easily accessed if the reader knows the different types of Internal text structures. Therefore, let us discuss the types of internal text structures.

There are Five Types of Informational Texts:

  1. Definition/description
  2. Sequence/time
  3. Cause and effect
  4. Comparison and contrast
  5. Problem-solution

Where Do We Generally Find Informational Texts:

  1. Definition/description: Textbooks, encyclopedias, newspapers, magazines, newspapers, diaries, etc.
  2. Sequence/Time: Recipes, textbooks, magazines, etc.
  3. Cause and effect: Science and social science textbooks, newspapers, encyclopedias, etc.
  4. Comparison and contrast: Science and social science textbooks, newspapers, encyclopedias, etc.
  5. Problem-solution: Newspaper, magazines, textbooks, etc.

In informational text, the author chooses a text structure carefully to inform the reader.

One informational textbook might contain multiple text structures or just one.


Understanding the Five Text Structures

Let’s have a good understanding of each structure of the informational text.

1. The first is the time order or sequence structure

The clue words: Before, followed by, finally, first, second, third, subsequent, last, and eventually.

Time order means putting the ideas in the order in which they happened. When writing about a past event, you need to use time order. You begin with the first thing that happened, then tell the second thing that happened, and then the third thing, and so on.

Example of time order:

We measured out the ingredients for the cake. After that, we mixed them to make a batter. Then, we poured the batter into a cake tin. Finally, we put the cake tin in the oven.

This creates an entire event or procedure you can follow from beginning to end. The examples of time order text are in the first place, secondly, thirdly, finally, now, then, before, after, next, finally, following, while, last, during, on (date), not long, and when.

2. Example of problem/solution informational text

Simple initiatives by the people,, like avoiding the use of plastic items and materials, switching off electric gadgets when not in use, and using public transport in place of personal vehicles like cars, etc., will considerably help reduce environmental pollution by ensuring that lesser hazardous gases are emitted into the atmosphere.

3. Cause & effect

The informational text gives information about an event (cause) and the products that follow the events.

The clue words: Led to, as a result, so that, due to, so, for this reason, to, etc.

They show the relationship between the cause of something and the effect that follows as a result.

Example of cause-and-effect information text:

Most people who get sick by being in cold weather are not correctly dressed. But sickness is not caused by hot or cold weather; it is caused by viruses, and, therefore, while shivering outside in the cold probably won’t strengthen your immune system, you’re more likely to contract an illness indoors because you will have a greater exposure to germs.

The signal words indicate that information in a paragraph is organized as cause and effect: because, as a result, resulted, caused, affected, since, due to, development, and so.

4. Compare/contrast

This type of informational text discusses the similarities and differences between two subjects.

Signal words: Different from, same as, alike, like, similar to, unlike, but, as well as, yet, either…or, not only…but also, compared to, in contrast, while resembles, although, unless, similarly, however.

5. Description/list

This type of informational text gives details or characteristics of something or somebody.

The clue words for descriptive information text are: One example, also, another, to begin with, on top of, in addition.

Frequently in textbook reading, an entire paragraph is devoted to defining a complex term or idea. In such a case, descriptive writing is used.

The concept is initially defined and then further expanded with examples and restatements.

Some examples of descriptive informational text:

  1. The lawn was full of flowers, blues, and yellows atop deep green stems that seemed to call the kids in to play.
  2. My friend’s dog’s fur felt like silk against his skin, hair and her grey coloring, absorbing the vast sunlight and reflecting it like a pure, dark mirror.
  3. The sunrise filled the sky with a deep red flame, setting the clouds ablaze.
5 Informational Text Structure


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