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States of Water: Roles in Earth’s Surface Processes

Grade 2
Jun 1, 2023

In this article, we’ll learn about different states of water, Importance and properties of water. Let’s begin.

Properties of Water

  • Water is a tasteless, colorless, odorless liquid.
  • Pure water is transparent. It has no smell.
Water has no color
  • Water has no shape but a definite volume. It takes the form of the container it is poured into.
Water is shapeless
  • Water is called a “universal solvent” because it can dissolve many substances compared to other liquids.
Water as a solvent
Water in different states

Importance of Water

  • Can you imagine your life without water?
  • No, then can you at least imagine a day without water? Still, your answer is no!!
  • Yes, since you begin using water as soon as you wake up. 
  • One of our basic needs is water.
  • For the sake of civilization and human life, it is essential. Because of the large amount of water on Earth, human existence is possible.
  • On a globe, you’ll see a large area that is colored blue, indicating the presence of water.
Water on Earth

States of Water

Water forms exist in three different states: solid, liquid, and gas.

solid, liquid and gas

States of Water: Solid

Water exists in its solid state as ice. Water freezes into ice. Because the molecules of water expand as it freezes, ice is less dense than water.

As ice will weigh less than the same volume of water, it will float in the liquid. At 32°F(Fahrenheit), or 0°C (Celsius), water freezes.

Ice (solid form of water)

States of Water: Liquid

Liquid water is wet and fluid. This is the type of water that we are most used to.

Liquid (A liquid form of water)

We use liquid water in several ways, such as for drinking, washing, and taking a bath.

Uses of water

Liquid water makes up a significant amount of all water on the planet. The main sources of liquid water include the oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, rain, and groundwater.

States of Water: Gaseous

Water as gas- The air surrounding us is always filled with vapor.

Although it is not visible to the naked eye, boiling water causes the liquid to change into a gas or water vapor.

Gaseous form of water

We observe a little cloud known as steam as some of the water vapor cools. The clouds we see in the sky are mini versions of this cloud of steam. Steam is created at sea level at 100°C or 212° F.


Small dust particles in the air become attached to the water vapor. In warm temperatures, raindrops begin to form. It freezes at low temperatures and condenses as hail or snow.



Ice forms when liquid water is chilled below 0ﹾC. The process of turning water into ice is known as freezing or solidification. 0ﹾC is the freezing point of pure water.



When ice is heated, it converts into liquid water. This process is known as melting.



When we heat water at a temperature up to 100ﹾC, it changes to steam or vapor. This process of changing liquid water into vapor is called evaporation. The boiling point of pure water is 100ﹾC.



When vapor or steam is cooled, it condenses into the liquid form of water. This process is known as condensation.


Overall, freezing is a change of the liquid form of water into the solid form of ice.

Melting is a change of the solid form of water into liquid form.

Condensation is gas changing into a liquid form of water.

When a liquid evaporates into gases, it is called evaporation.

Freezing and melting
Condensation and evaporation
States of water


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