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Grade 10 Science

Grade 10

The Grade 10 Science curriculum is majorly grouped into biological sciences for studying cells intensively, knowing about heredity and evolution, physicochemical sciences to learn about forces, interactions between objects, light and electromagnetism, chemical reactions, metallurgy and all about acids, bases, and salts and finally Earth sciences to study interactions of Earth with various elements of Universe.

What you'll learn

  • 1

    Chemical reactions - Chemical reaction, writing a chemical equation, balancing an equation, types of chemical reactions, acids, bases, indicators, chemical properties of acids and bases, similarities and differences between acids and bases, pH scale, the importance of pH in life, salts and types of salts, physical and chemical properties of metals, non-metals, and metalloids, metallurgy.

  • 2

    Forces and interactions - Force, laws of motion, uniform circular motion, conservation of momentum, centripetal force, centrifugal force and acceleration.

  • 3

    Energy - Sources of energy, conventional sources of energy, alternate sources of energy, environmental consequences of overuse, wise usage of energy and conservation of energy.

  • 4

    Light - Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, spherical lenses, image formation by mirrors and lenses, ray diagrams, mirror formula, magnification, power of a lens, refractive index, Snell's law, total internal reflection, diffraction, atmospheric refraction, human eye, defects of eye, laser and its applications.

  • 5

    Electromagnetism - Magnetism, sources of magnetic field, magnetic field lines due to the current-carrying conductor, electric motor, induced current and induced EMF, Faraday's laws, electric generator and power supply, movement of a current-carrying conductor, transformers, and electromagnetic spectrum.

  • 6

    Structure and function - Structure, functions, models of plasma membrane, passive transport, active transport, cell size, cell division, mitosis, and meiosis.

  • 7

    Matter and energy in organisms and ecosystems - Energy flow in the ecosystem, process, and components of photosynthesis, respiration, stages of respiration in plants, photorespiration, and biogeochemical cycles.

  • 8

    Interdependent relationships in the ecosystem - Biological changes, reproduction pattern and carrying capacity of population, anthropogenic changes, physical and extreme changes in the ecosystem, pollution, and mathematical representation.

  • 9

    Inheritance and variation of traits - Evidence for inheritance, mutations, mutagens, alteration of generations, incomplete dominance, codominance, gene interactions.

  • 10

    Natural selection and evolution - Introduction to evolution, evidence for evolution, variation, selection, population dynamics, population growth, population density.

  • 11

    Space systems - Gravity, universal law of gravitation, free fall, motion under gravity, the law of conservation of energy, gravitation of the sun and the Earth, Big Bang theory, nuclear fusion, the evolution of Earth, the origin of life, theories of the origin of Earth.

  • 12

    History of earth - Theory proposed by Alfred Wegener, ages of crustal rocks, evidence of the ages of oceanic crust, plate spreading, past plate interactions, three theories related to the history of Earth, dynamics of Earth's outer sheets, meteorites, Earth's oldest materials, composition of the solar system and record of planetary surfaces.

  • 13

    Earth's systems - Greenhouse gases, global temperatures, soil erosion, coastal erosion, plate tectonics, radioactive decay, structure of Earth, convection in the Earth, and spheres of Earth.

  • 14

    Weather and climate - Changes in climate, Earth's orbit, tectonic events, volcanic activity, ocean currents, glaciers, vegetation and human activities.

  • 15

    Human sustainability - Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, mass wasting, soil erosion, hurricanes, floods, droughts, human migrations, sustainability of human society, biodiversity, ecosystem degradation, management of resources, soil conservation, water conservation, and conservation of fuel.

Skills you'll learn

Chemical analysis - Chemical reactions, properties of acids, bases, and salts and their uses in daily life. Classification skills - Classification of elements into metal, non-metals, and metalloids based on their properties.

Observation skills - Types of forces, laws of motion, uniform circular motion, conservation of momentum, application of centripetal and centrifugal forces.

Application and evaluation skills - Evaluating the energy sources and alternative sources of energy.

Investigating, exploring skills and problem-solving skills - Identifying different sources of light, investigating how light travels in different media, exploring the phenomenon of reflection, diffraction, atmospheric refraction, the human eye, and applications of laser.

Critical thinking and observation skills - Magnetism, observing magnetic field lines, Faraday's laws, electric generator, transformer, and electromagnetic spectrum.

Experimental design, analytical skills - Structure and functions of plasma membrane, transport via plasma membrane, cell size and cell division.

Analyzing skills - Energy flow through ecosystem, phenomena of photosynthesis, respiration and photorespiration, knowledge about biogeochemical cycles.

Qualitative analysis - Ecosystem, biological changes in the ecosystem, analyzing population carrying capacity, anthropogenic changes and their influence on the ecosystem.

Research skills - Mutations, effect of mutagens, incomplete dominance in traits, gene interactions and evidence of inheritance.

Investigating skills - Observing evidence of evolution, population dynamics and density factors.

Observation skills - Law of conservation of energy, universal law of gravitation, Big Bang theory, nuclear fusion, origin of Earth, theories of origin of life on Earth.

Study analysis - History of Earth and theories related to the plates of Earth, elements of the universe, cosmological research.

Observation and exploring skills - Exploring Earth's structure, geological activity, plate tectonics, structure of Earth and spheres of Earth.

Exploring skills - Studying the climate changes based on tectonic movements, ocean currents, and human activities.

Analysing skills - Analysing natural phenomena, relation between biogeochemical cycles, remedial measures to control human impact on Earth system.

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